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James Joyce의 Epiphany 硏究

James Joyce의 Epiphany 硏究
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Study on James Joyce's epiphany
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대학원 영어영문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
James Joyce는 현대 심리 소설의 선구자로서 그의 문학의 핵심은 Epiphany이론이라고 볼 수 있다. 이는 최초의 자연주의적 단편집 Dubliners에서 심리주의 소설 Finnegans Wake에 이르는 그의 모든 작품을 이해하는 열쇠가 되며 Joyce의 예술가적 태도를 반영하는 중요한 개념이다. epiphany는 처음에 자신의 개인적 경험에서 비롯된 사소한 대화의 단편, 산문시, 꿈등 단편적인 짧은 스케치였다. 이후 Joyce는 epiphany를 순간적인 예술가적 광휘로 생각하게 되었고 Stephen Hero에서 epiphany를 갑작스런 정신적 발로로서 이는 언어 또는 제스터의 야비성 속에서, 또는 마음자체의 기억할 수 있는 면에서 일어나는 것이라고 정의했다. 그는 또한 문인이라면 이러한 epiphany 자체가 가장 섬세하고 덧없는 순간이라는 것을 알고 세심한 주의를 가지고 그들을 기록해야 한다고 믿었다. epiphany의 특징은 돌발성과 순간성으로서 이는 사물이 시인의 상상력을 통해 그 미를 드러내는 낭만주의 시의 "Poetic elevation"의 순간과 일맥상통한다. 또한 이러한 epiphany의 순간을 기록하고 이를 소설 구조 속에서 재창조하기 위해서는 여러 가지 다양한 기법과 형식이 요구된다. 이를 위해 Joyce는 Interior monologue, Free association, dream, Montage or Block technique, scrupulous meanness style 등의 다양한 새로운 기법을 도입 발전시켰다. 자전적 소설인 A Portrait of The Artist As A Young Man에서는 epiphany를 통해 주관적 소재를 선택, 조명하여 자신의 경험을 객관화 시켰으며 주인공 Stephen Dedalus의 환경과의 갈등, 예술가로서의 정신적 성장이 epiphany를 통해 그려진다.;James Joyce is a forerunner of stream of consciousness novel. The core of his literature is theory of epiphany. It is a important term by which we can understand his all works from Dubliners to Finnegans Wake, and by which he reveals his attitude as a artist. At first epiphany was brief sketches as a trivial conversation, prose verse, and dreams which observed and noted from his private experience. Later, he thought epiphany a radiance. In Stephen Hero he introduced the definition of epiphany. By an epiphany he meant a sudden spiritual manifestation, whether in the vulgarity of speech or of gesture or in a memorable phase of the mind itself. He believed that it was for the man of letters to record these epiphanies with extreme care, seeing that they themselves are the most delicate and evanescent of moments. The significant characters of epiphany are evanescence and abruptness or unexpectedness. To sum up the comparison of Joyce's epipheny with other smilar experience, it may be said that stephen's "suddeu spiritual manifestation" has something common with a church epiphany and a moment of scientific recognition in that what is revealed or recognized is a kind of truth, but differs from them in being evanescent. On the other hand, in its evanescence it is akin to a moment of poetic elevation, and enters into the genre of art and literature. Because epiphanies are evanescent they are all the more valuable and in order to retain the value, they need to be recorded. This necessity for recording in turn calls for technique and art, and a creation is achieved when the recording is done by combination of epiphany and art. For this noting and recreation Joyce used many new techniques such as interior monologue, free association, dream, montage or block technique, scrupulous meanness style. In a biographical novel, A Portrait Or The Artist As A Youn¨g Man, Joyce solves the problem of selection and heightning of subjective material through the use of epiphanies which indicate and stress significance. And by an epiphany he conveyed the conflict between the artist and his mean environment, and the development of the artist. Much of Stephen's spiritual development, almost all its positive side which tends towards aesthetic fulfilment is conveyed through epiphanies. These provide lyrical moments of great power and significance, and often of great beauty also. From a structural point of view, epiphanies provide the climax of stephen's progress, that is they mark the crises in which we would call in more conventional novel the plot- here the line of inner action or internal drama.
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