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軍艦의 通航權에 관한 硏究

軍艦의 通航權에 관한 硏究
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(A) study on the right of passage of warships
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대학원 법학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
국 영문초록 수록;It has become not only the most controversial problem between scholars and the nations that warships could possibly have the right of innocent passage on the other nation's territorial sea like that of other all ships, but also the most critical demand which has to be solved. Since the right of innocent passage of warships had been forcibly accepted as an abstract principle by the nations that had Great Power on the sea, there were many objections when it was put to be codified as an international law of sea. When the first effort to codify the customary law of sea in 1930 Codification Conference, even though they adopted the right of innocent passage of warships in Draft, all the law of sea could not be codified. When the Conference on the Law of Sea in 1958 in Geneva did reach to adopt four Convention. In spite of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone regulated the right of innocent passage of warships, the lack of clear concept and ambiguoty of that right made it worse to be done so. By the way, the 3rd Conference on the Law of Sea gave a birth the Informal Single Negotiating Text for the first time, which consequently made it possible for that right to be as law of sea that warships have become applied to that right as well as the other all ships. In the 11th Session of the 3rd Confenerce on the law of the sea, the Informal Draft Convention is adopted as Formal Convention. In this Convention, a great deal of aspects of international law of sea are reflected that modified in the light of the changes which had taken place on the sea regime after the Second World War. Accordingly the right of innocent passage of warships was accepted clearly in the other nation's territorial sea. And in stratis used for international navigation establish a new regime of Transit Passage, while recognized innocent passage without suspending temporarily before. Archipelagic wa.ters is internal waters which was admitted by the method of straight baselines. Since it has been considered the exclusive jurisdiction in internal waters, but where the establishment of strait baselines has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which has not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage shall exist in those waters, and the archipelagic waters in used for the international navigation, it is analogously applied to the regime of straits used for international navigation. In this study, I have analysized the concept of the right of innocent passage of warships in territorial sea, in straits used for international navigetion and in archipelagic waters, reference to the newly accepted international law of sea, and consequently our nation's problems of the right of passage of warships concern as a bordering State as well as a user State.;軍艦이 他國의 領海에서 모든 船泊과 같은 無害通航權을 갖는다는 것은 學者들과 國家間에 對立되어 온 難題로서 海洋法會議의 중심과제중의 하나였다. 그러나 軍艦의 無害通航權은 海洋强大國의 便宜에 의하여 强壓的으로 認定되어 온 것이므로 이를 成文化된 國際法規範으로서 인정하려고 하였을 때에는 이에 대한 反論이 심하였다. 1930년 最初로 海洋法을 成文化하려는 作業에서, 草案에서는 軍艦의 無害通航權을 認定하였으나 이를 法典化하는 데 失敗하였으며 제1차 海洋法會議에서는 이에 대한 明文의 規定이 없음으로 解釋上 그 認否가 明確치 못하게 되었다. 그러나 제3차 海洋法會議에서 처음으로 海洋法草案으로 作成된 「非公式單一交涉草案」에는 모든 船泊에 適用되는 無害通航權의 規定이 軍艦에도 適用된다고 하여 軍艦의 無害通航權을 明文으로 規定하게 되었다. 1982年 제3차 海洋法會議 第11回期에서는 그동안 非公式草案으로 내려온 國際海洋法이 公式海洋法協約으로 採擇되었다. 同協約의 規定에는 제2차 世界大戰 後 급격히 변모된 海洋制度를 반영하여 종래 海洋國際法에 大幅的인 수정을 가하게 되었다. 이에 따라 他國의 領海에서 軍艦은 無害通航權이 認定되게 되었고 國際航行에 使用되는 海峽에 있어서는 과거 一時 停止되지 않는 無害通航權이 認定되었으나 이제 새로운 制度인 通過通航制度가 수립되었다. 그리고 群島水域은 群島國家의 直線基線을 採擇함에 따라 認定된 內水로서, 從來 內水에는 排他的인 管轄權이 認定되었으나 直線基線으로 인한 內水에는 無害通航權이 認定되며 또한 同水域이 國際航行에 使用될 경우는 海峽과 거의 유사한 通航制度가 認定되게 되었다. 그리하여 本稿에서는 새로이 採擇된 國際海洋法에 따라 無害通航權의 槪念과 領海, 海峽 그리고 群島水域에 있어서 軍艦의 通航權問題를 알아본 뒤 우리나라에 있어 軍艦의 通航權問題를 살펴 보았다.
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