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日帝下의 朝鮮林野調査事業에 관한 硏究

Title
日帝下의 朝鮮林野調査事業에 관한 硏究
Authors
강영심
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
日帝下朝鮮林野調査事業역사
Publisher
梨花女子大學校 大學院
Degree
Master
Abstract
日帝下에서 1917년∼1935년에 실시했던 「朝鮮林野調査事業」은 朝鮮을 식민지로 强占한 日帝가 收奪을 위한 植民地的 近代經濟體制를 構築하기 위한 定策의 일환으로서 土地調査事業과 더불어 日帝의 植民地收奪에 있어 兩大 기초를 마련한 것이었다. 특히 전국토의 7할 이상을 차지하는 廣大한 朝鮮의 林野를 효과적으로 수탈하기 위한 이사업이야말로 日帝의 植民地的 國有地掠奪定策으로 실시되었던 土地調査事業과 함께 朝鮮의 全土地에 近代的인 私的 所有制를 植民地的으로 도입하였던 점에서 중요한 의미를 지닌다. 본고에서는 日帝가 國有林의 강제적 대량창출과 民有林에서의 소유관계 再編을 획책한 「朝鮮林野調査事業」의 기본적인 구조와 실시과정을 중심으로 분석함으로써 林野에 있어서 近代的인 私的所有權의 再法認過程을 통한 林野掠奪定策의 實體를 밝히고자 하였다. 日帝는 林野의 실질적 경제가치가 저조하기 때문에 이에 대한 본격적인 조사를 별도로 시행치 않고 1908년의 「森林法」과 法認過程에 불과한 「森林令」 및 國有林區分調査로서 林野에의 정비를 완성시키려 하였으나 강제 편입된 國有林의 분급과정에서 소유권분쟁이 급증하여 收奪林政상 지장이 많았다. 그리하여 諸障碍를 제거하기 위하여 土地調査事業의 有經驗者들을 끌어 모아 完備된 조직도 없이 速成方針下에서 變則的 制度와 簡約한 方法에 의하여 「朝鮮林野調査事業」을 실시하였던 것이다. 「朝鮮林野調査事業」은 朝鮮의 林野에 登記制度를 도입하고 地番制를 創設하여, 日帝의 植民地 森林收奪의 주대상이 되어온 國有林野를 최종적으로 法認함과 동시에 私有林野의 所有關係 再法認을 통한 日人資本의 合法的 林野占有를 지원·보장해 주는 편리한 제도적 장치를 마련하려는데 그 목적이 있었다. 또한 日帝는 國有林創出의 극대화를 추구하기 위하여 「朝鮮林野調査事業」에서 종래 朝鮮의 林野所有關係에 관한 관습을 무시한 채 엄격하고 제한된 民有林認定標準을 설정하여 160萬町步 정도의 私有林을 강권적으로 國有林에 편입시켰던 것이다. 더욱이 日帝는 朝鮮後期로 내려올수록 확대 발전되어 가던 朝鮮 內部의 林野私占의 추세를 否認하고, 法認만 되지 않았을 뿐 民有와 다름없는 林野에 대해 그 緣故權만을 法認한 채 이를 모두 國有林에 귀속시키고 말았다. 이는 封建的 土地所有關係로부터 自生的인 近代的 所有關係로의 移行을 拂拭시키려는 收奪 위주의 帝國主義 屬性을 나타낸다는 점에서 중요한 의미를 내포하고 있는 것이다. 실제로 緣故林으로 편입된 면적은 全林野面積의 20%(總林野筆數의 32%)를 차지하는 약 337 萬町步에 달하였으며, 이와 같은 强勸적 林野收奪은 緣故林으로 편입된 林野 중 70%가 所有權 訂正을 주장하여 不服申立을 제기하였던 사실에서도 명백히 드러나고 있다. 그리고 「朝鮮林野調査事業」에 의하여 林野의 商品化와 登記制度 등 林野占有를 위한 便宜한 제도가 마련되자 日本資本家와 극소수의 朝鮮人地主의 林野占有 - 日帝에 의한 國有林의 賣却, 讓與 造林貸付등으로 占有 - 가 본격적으로 전개되었던 것이다. ;The Forest Survey Program of Chosen (朝鮮) under the Japanese rule between 1917 and 1935 was introduced in Korea as a part of imperial Japanese policy to construct modern economic systems in Korea, her new colony for exploitation. The Forest Program together with the Land Survey Program of Chosen, makes up two most important legal basis which enabled Japanese to expropriate the Korean Land. It is important to note that the Forest Survey Program was introduced to Korea and implemented under the disguise of "modern" legal system. On the surface the Forest Survey Program was to guarantee the legal and private ownership of forest for Koreans. In true reality, it was used by Japanese to effectively take over vast Korean forest away from its owners. The forest makes up 70% of total landspace of Korean peninsular. This paper reveals how Japanese seized the vast public and private forest away from Korean owners through the revalidation process via the Forest Survey Program. This paper focuses on the analyses of the basic structures and the implementation procedure of the Forest Survey Program practiced by the Imperial Japanese in Korea. Due to retatively low economic value, the Imperial Japanese did not immediately make full-out efforts to take over Korean Forest land. Initial legistrative measures were limited only to a simple classification action to Korean forest through Forest Law (森林法) of 1908, Forest Ordinance (森林令) and Appraisal of National Public Forest (國有林區分調査) of 1911. However, as the disputes among Japanese capitalist and immigrants rapidly increased over the ownership right, the Imperial Japanese had to introduce a legal means to settle such disputes. What they introduced was a flexible and simple system, called the Forest Survey Program. The implementation of this system was realized without creating a new agency and only with utilization of existing offices. The Forest Survey Program introduced a modern registration system to Colonial Korea assigning lot numbers to the Korean forest; allowing the conversion of the national forest into privately owned corporate bodies and forcisly requiring private owners to revalidate their rights to the forest land. In the process, the Forest Survey Program supported and provided Japanese capitalist & immigrants a convenient means of lawfully expropriating Korean forest. To maximize the expropriation of Korean forest, the Japanese administration instituted a strict and restrictive standards for the ownership revalidation to Korean ignoring all past and traditional practices honored by Korean for years. As a result, the legal annexation of 1. 6 million Chong-Bo (町步: hectares) of Korean private forest was realized into the Japanese hand as their national forest. Furthermore, the Imperial Japanese denied any private claim by Korean occupying the national forest, eventhough such claims were widely recognized by late Yi Dynasty. Although the claimers of these forest lands did not have legal titles, their rights to the forest was not any different from those with titles in any way of shape or form. The Japanese Imperialism however, nationalized all of these forest occupied by the claimers with a simple but empty acknowledgement of the claimer's preemptive rights (緣故權) to their for~st. It reveals the Imperial Japanese intention to wipe out any spontaneous transition from feual land ownership to modern private land ownership in Korea. The forest land Japanese appropriated into their hands through this method reached 3.37 million Chong-Bo, 20% of total forest in Korea. Reactions by Korean against the measure were well expressed when 70% of the claimers made appealed to Japanese authority for reconsideration. As this system proved to be effective to commodity the Korean forest land, the Forest Survey Program became institutionized across all Korea, a full-scale plunderage of the national forest by Japanese capitalist became prevalent. (through the sales, concession or lease of the national forest) Consequently, what resulted from the implementation of the Forest Survey Program was the establishment of semifeudal landlord system suitable for the Imperial Japanese.
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