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現行 民法上의 戶主制度에 관한 考察

Title
現行 民法上의 戶主制度에 관한 考察
Other Titles
(A) study of the head of the household system in the present civil code
Authors
粱貞子
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 법학과
Keywords
현행민법상호주제도
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The head of the household system is a system of giving identity through the patrilineal line, and among civilized nations is uniquely found in Korea. However, from the time of the writing of our Constitution down to the present, the democratic ideology of the dignity of human beings, equality of man and woman, and the integrity of marriage has been in direct confrontation with this head of the household system. Under the present Civil Code the power of this system is becoming weaker and exists only in an external and formal sense. Nevertheless, as the field of family law is based on this system, laws and ordinances such as those related to marriage, parent-child relationships, and inheritance stem from and follow the dominance of the male so one realizes that this head of the household system indeed has more than a formal existence in the general of family law. However, even though this system may exist in form only, people recognize a need to make express provisions for it in their legislation. So, at this time, it is necessary to again study, through an inquiry into the people's consciousness and history, this head of the household system as related to the present day. It is also important to examine the life of our people, both in the present and future, in order to evaluate the need to continue to maintain these explicit provisions of such a system in our law. Therefore, this dissertation attempts a study of the meaning of the head of the household system, gives close attention to the thinking about 'the family', and investigates the logic of the structure of the head of the household system and the essential social factors of its existence. The concept pf the family system, its basis, its types, the changes occurring in it along with the historical process of changes in the head of the household system are viewed through a comparison between our country and main currents in the legal culture of other countries. An examination of the present head of the household system is developed herein and then a comparative law study is made between our system and t hat of the 'family head system' which presently exists in the civil code of Switzerland and Taiwan. In April 1982 the writer conducted a survey of the actual state of the value system of present-day Koreans with regard to the family law which is based on the head of the household system as expressed in the provisions of the present civil code. The results of two similar investigations from 1962 and 1974 were compared with the 1982 investigation in order to describe the changes in people's consciousness and in the society. Consequently the writer makes sertain statements about the ordinary citizen's changing view of the family. A comprehensive, orderly and criticial evaluation of the grounds for the idea of the continuation or abolition of the head of the household system in our society at present is included in the paper. By way of conclusion, the writer has asserted the importance of the abolition of this head of the household system in Korea and has presented goals and direction for the establishment of the movement for revision of the Korean Family Law in the future. ;戶主制度는 男子를 中心으로 家系를 이어가는 身分制度로서 文明國에 그 立法例가 없는 우리나라 特有의 것이며 우리憲法이 規定한 「人間尊嚴性」이나 「男女平等」「」婚姻의 純潔등의 民主主義 理念에 違背되는 것이며 立法當時부터 現在에 이르기까지 論難의 對象이 되고 있는 制度이다. 現行民法上의 戶主制度는 戶主權의 弱化로 外形的, 形式的 存在에 不過하게 되었지만 이를 基本으로 하여 親族相續法分野 즉 婚姻, 父母와 子, 親權, 相續關係등을 비롯하여 다른 法令에서도 이에 基礎하여 附隨하여 男子中心으로 되어있어 결코 形式的인 存在가 아님을 家族法 全般에 걸쳐 느끼게한다. 그럼에도 불구하고 과연 形式的인 存在만으로라도 이 制度를 明文化 해 두어야 할 立法論的인 必要性을 가진 것이라 認識된 것이라면 現時点에서 다시한번 一般國民意識과 史的考察을 통한 戶主制度와 現在, 現在와 앞으로의 우리生活에서 繼續 明文規定으로 남아야 할 必要性이 있는 것인지를 再檢討해 볼 必要性이 있다. 따라서 本 論文에서는 「戶主制度」라는 意味論的 考察을 試圖하면서 「家」思想을 吟味하고 나아가 戶主制度의 構造的 論理와 그 存立의 社會的 要件등을 살펴보았고, 家族制度의 槪念, 家族制度 基礎로서의 家族의 類型, 家族制度의 變遷과 戶主制度에 관한 歷史的 變遷過程을 우리나라와 世界主流的 法文化圈 國家를 比較하여 보았으며 現行戶主制度에 관해 檢討, 硏究해 보고, 현재 民法上의 家長制度를 두고있는 스위스·自由中國의 家長制度를 우리나라의 戶主制度와 比較法的으로 살펴보았고, 現行民法上 戶主制度와 이를 基本으로 하여 規定된 「家族法에 관한 現代人의 價値觀의 實態」調査를 本 硏究者가 1982년 4月 實施한 內容과 1962년, 1974년 그 當時 調査·實施·發表되었던 國民意識과를 比較함으로써 社會變化에 따른 一般國民의 家族觀의 變化를 알아보았고, 現 우리社會에서 惹起되고 있는 戶主制度 存廢論의 根據를 綜合·整理·批判을 하였고, 마지막으로 우리나라 戶主制度의 廢止論을 力說함으로써 앞으로 다가올 家族法改正의 座標設定方向을 提示하였다.
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