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中國古代 絹織物 硏究

Title
中國古代 絹織物 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the silk fabrics in the ancient china : Mainly on the inventing and developing period
Authors
南基信.
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Keywords
출토견직물견직물직기직물문양
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
人類의 生活文化의 歷史가운데 織物製織에 의하여 진정한 服飾生活을 하게된 것은 거의 新石器代 四大江유역 文明發祥地域에서 되었으며, 絹織物의 歷史는 지금으로부터 約 5,000年前 東北아시아地域에서 新石器定住生活과 더불어 始作된 것으로 전해지고 있다. 織物의 發生動機는 人間의 皮膚保護를 爲한 必要性과 價値性이 있었으리라 보여지나 人類文化가 점차로 發達함과 同時에 그 織物은 實用的이며 衛生的인 面에서 다시 美意識을 充足시켜주는 美的 藝術面으로 發展되어 왔다고 볼 수 있다. 特히 絹織物은 모든 纖維中 가장 光澤이 華麗하고 觸感이 부드러우며 더욱이 衛生的인 特性까지 지니고 있는 高級織物로서 東北아시아國家의 絹織物工業에서 至大한 發展을 해 왔다는 것은 周知의 事實이다. 따라서 古代絹織物에 關한 本硏究 論文은 絹織物의 發祥圈中에서 가장 많은 遺品을 保存하고 있는 中國을 中心으로 最初의 絹織物이 어디에서 어떠한 形態로 製織하여 發展해 왔는가 하는 諸般事項 즉 絹織物에 대한 素材, 染色의 色相과 그 染色方法, 文樣의 形과 意味 織組法과 産地등을 文獻과 出土遺品을 通하여 그 實狀을 分明히 밝히고자 한 것이다. 織物은 材質로서 매우 弱하고 保存이 어렵다. 오래된 織物은 그 대부분이 色이 바래고 變質되고 老化되어 完全한 모습을 보기에는 상당히 어렵다. 더구나 古代織物에 對한 硏究는 다른 種類의 美術品에 비해에 매우 늦기 때문에 이에 관한 文獻, 標本 傳承등이 적은편이다. 事實 우리나라의 織物硏究에 있어서는 現代織物에 관련된 硏究는 各 方向으로 硏究되어 왔으나 古代織物에 관한 硏究는 아직 많은 硏究를 해야할 단계에 있다. 近來에 들어서 古代織物에 대한 硏究動向은 앞으로의 服飾과 織物文化에 커다란 意味를 주고 있음을 示唆한다. 織物文化라는 것은 한 나라에서 單獨的으로 發生 發展한 것이 아니고 外來文化의 傳播와 受容등 交流에 의해서 또는 土着的인 것이 變化해서 그 時代에 맞게 固定되었기 때문에 오늘날과 같은 織物文化가 形成된 것이다. 絹織物의 경우에는 世界織物史上 驚異的인 일이다. 로마에서는 絹은 同重量의 金과 같이 취급한 珍貴한 織物이었다. 우리나라의 絹織物은 發祥 發展地域에 包括되어서 일찌기 華麗한 絹織物 使用 歷史를 가진 로마國과 오늘날의 染織國인 日本이 絹織物에 대해서 모르고 있을적에 우리나라는 新石器 農耕生活에서 絹織物을 製織하여 使用하였다는 記錄이 있다. 이러한 것은 織物文化史的인 側面에서 볼 때 상당한 位置에 있었음에도 불구하고 調査가 不足한 상태에 있다. 이러한 時點에서 우리나라의 絹織物에 관하여 보다 分明하게 把握하기 위해서는 發祥地인 中國絹織物의 發祥 發展 交流에 대한 全般的인 商況을 調査하므로서 앞으로의 우리나라의 絹織物硏究와 나아가서 世界絹織物의 發展 交流에 대한 諸般事項을 硏究하는데 基礎資料로 삼고자 目的을 두었다. 本 硏究範圍는 仰韶期에서 唐代까지로 하였으며 硏究方法은 絹織物에 關한 圖錄과 古書, 美術關係書籍, 考古學系統의 書籍, 그리고 出土品硏究報告書를 重點的으로 活用하였다. 以上과 같은 狀況에서 古代中國의 絹織物에 대한 諸般事項을 考察한 結果 다음과 같은 結論을 얻었다. (1) 絹織物의 出土遺品은 殷代에서부터 시작한다고 할 수 있다. 文獻에 있어서도 先史時代의 養蠶은 傳說에 의한 기록이었다. 殷代 甲骨文中에 桑 絲 帛 蠶의 字가 나타난 것으로 養蠶의 歷史를 殷代부터로 정할 수 있다. 그리고 養蠶의 原産地는 中國의 中部인 黃河流域일대인 袞州라고 본다. (2) 出土品調査에 의한 絹織物은 平絹에서부터 시작하여 綾 錦 등의 제직과정으로 發展한다. (3) 平絹의 經緯絲密度를 보면 殷代에서는 1㎠當 37×30 40×30 50×35정도에서 漢代에 들면서 124×56 116×52까지 織組되어 상당한 高密度織物로 發展하였음을 보여준다. 그리고 殷代의 平絹의 絲는 二本撚合의 右撚, 감撚, 良質絲와 右撚短織維의 粗惡絲와 無撚單絲를 사용하였으며 戰國時代의 平絹의 絲는 無撚이며 家蠶絹絲이다. (4) 綾은 殷代에서부터 시작하며 綾織은 3/1과 1/1의 것으로서 6개의 종광을 가진 組織이며 漢代에 나타난 綾은 平組織을 이루는 浮文綾의 一種으로 粒狀紋을 이루고 있다. 經緯絲密度는 36∼40×34로 고운편은 아니다. 六朝代의 綾은 經緯絲密度가 95×72로 아주 고운 練絹의 平地四枚綾이고 唐代의 綾은 三枚 四枚 六枚綾으로 多樣해졌다. 한편 漢代에 나타난 胡綾은 紀元前後의 織物文化의 東西交流狀을 보여준다. (5) 錦은 文獻上으로 春秋時代인 「詩經」「左傳」에 錦이 나타나며 出土品으로는 戰國時代에 菱形紋과 小紋樣의 組合紋樣織錦이 보여진다. 이는 花樓方法에 의한 提花法으로 紋樣織錦을 제직하였음을 實證한다. 戰國時代에 錦의 絲는 二合無撚絲에 三重, 二重經錦이며 漢代에는 織成錦 起毛錦이 보인다. 六朝代에는 사산朝 페르시아의 영향을 받아 複樣綾組織의 緯錦이 나타나기 시작하고 唐代에는 대부분의 錦의 樣式이 사산朝 페르시아文樣이 혼입된 複樣綾組織 緯錦이 많고 운간문도 많이 보인다. (6) 紗의 出土遺品은 戰國時代부터이며 漢代의 紗는 菱形紋이며 撚數는 1m당 기계撚의 3,500回에 근사한 2,500∼3,000回로서 그 우수성을 보여주고 있다. (7) 羅 綺 縮絹 추 綴織의 出土는 漢代부터이다. 染色物의 出土도 漢代부터이고 剌繡는 戰國時代부터 보이며 特히 漢代에서 多量의 剌繡品이 보이는데 거의 鎖繡(Chain Stich)이다. (8) 染色에 있어서 先泰時代의 代表的인 染料는 천근 藎草 紫草藍의 四種이며 色은 紅 絳 縉 천 전 주 묵 시 綠 총 紺繰등이다. 唐代의 染色은 보통 靑 絳 黃 白 조 紫의 6種으로 記錄되어 있고 織染法은 보통 平染外에 사힐 예힐 협힐과 繪가 있다. (9) 文樣의 樣式을 보면 仰韶期에는 主로 幾何紋이고 殷·周代에는 도철문상봉문 蟬文등의 爬蟲文樣에 의해서 조립되었으며 戰國時代에는 원룡문, 漢代에는 鳳凰 龍 龜 麒麟 원앙등의 動物文, 唐代에는 實相花文 蓮華文 唐草文 수렵문 吉祥的인 文字등이 보여진다. 特히 唐代에는 西方傳來라고 하는 左右對稱의 動物文, 聖樹文, 連珠文등이 많다. 이와같이 페르시아樣式의 文樣을 織成한 것은 실크로드(Silk Road)를 通해서 무역과 文化交流가 빈번히 盛行하였음을 實證한다. (10) 織機에 있어서 平絹을 織造한 것은 要機이고 錦과 같이 복잡한 織物은 空引機를 利用하였다. (11) 絹織物의 産地는 先奏時代에는 河南省 山東省 陜西省이고 漢代에는 山東省 河南省이며 唐代에는 關內道 河南道 河北道 山南道 淮南道 劍南道이다.;In the history of human life culture, the true clothing life by weaving fabrics had started and developed in the cradles of the four great river civilizations in the world about in the early Nedithic age, and the history of silk fabrics began with the fixed living in the Nedithic age, and the history of silk fabrics began with the fixed liying in the Nedithic age, about five thousand years ago, in the region of the North-East Asia. It is considered that the original motive of using fabrics was to protect the human skin, and then the fabrics had developed from the practical and hygienic aspect to the aesthetic and artistic aspect which satisfies the aesthefic consciousness. It is well known that, especially, the silk fabrics have the most splendid luster, the softest, handling of all fabrics and good hygienic property, and had been greatly developed in the silk industry of North-East Asia countries. Hence, in this thesis on the ancient silk fabrics, I will make the actual facts clear about all the matter where and in what form were the first silk fabrics make and developed, namely, about materials of silk fabrics, dyed color and dyeing method, the shape and meaning of figures, weaving method and place of production, mainly in china which preserves the greatest amount relics among the birth places of silk fabrics, by means of literatures and excavations. Because fabrics are very weak its preservation is difficult. As the most part of old fabrics have faded and deteriorated, it is very difficult to find a perfect ones Hare over, the study on the ancient fabrics is much less than those of other works of art, and so, the literatures, samples and inheritances are not sufficient. In fact, in our country, the studies related with modern fabrics have been performed in every fields, but for the ancient fabrics we are in the stage of having to study much more. In these days, the trend of studies on the ancient fabrics gives great meaning to the clothing and the fabric culture of the furture. The fabric culture was not originated and developed in one country alone, but it has been build up like that of these days by cultural exchange and change of original culture. In the case of silk fabrics it is marvelous event in the history of fabrics of the world. In Rome, silke was a precious fabrics, treated as valuable as the gold of same weight. Because our country lied in the reagion of the birth place of silk fabrics, it was woven and used in our country in the Neolithic age when the Rome that had magnificient history of using silk fabrics and the Japan that is one of the greatest silk industrial. country now, did not know about silk fabrics. In spite of considerably important position in the fabric cultural history, the study on ancient silk fabrics is deficient. It this situation, to grasp obriously the silk fabrics of our country, I have researched all the matters about origination, development and interchange of silk fabrics in China, the birth place of silk fabrics. And I want this thesis can be used as the basic material for the studies on the silk fabrics of our country in the furture, and further-more on the all matters about deyelopment and interchange of silk fabrics in the world. En this thesis, the range of study is from the age of Yang-so(仰韶) to the age of 唐 dynasty, and I used mostly the picture books and ancient books for the silk fabrics, literatures concerned with art and with archeology, and reports on the study of excavations. Under this circumstance, after I researched all the matters about the silk fabrics of ancient China, I got a conclusion like this, (1) It is considered that the oldest excavation of silk fabircs is that of ancient Yin(殷) dynasty. In the records, it is written that silk worm culture of the prehistoric age has been informed by legend. By the characters like a mulberry tree(桑), Yarn(絲), silk(帛) silk worm(천), in the history of the ancient Yin dynasty, it can be said that silk worm culture started from the age of ancien Yin dynasty. In addition, Yon-dhou(袞州), around the yellow river reagion in china, is considered as the birth place of silkworm culture. (2) After the research on those excavations, it is considered that silk fabrics had been developed from "pei-chuan(plain-woven: 平絹)" to "Ling(twill: 綾)", "Chin(錦)", "Lo(gauze:羅)" in their weaving process. (3) Counts in "pei-chuan" of Yin Dynasty are about 37×40, 40×30, 50×35, and had been developed to 124×56, 116×52. in pei-chuan of Han dynasty. This means that "pei-chuan" had been developed into fairly high density fabrics by that time. In addition, two-folded varns of good qualities which have left hand twist, and untwisted single yarns were used of "pei-chuan" in Yin dynasty. And, untwisted silk yarns were used for "pei-chuan" in the period of civil wars. (4) "Ling" (twill) was woven first in Yin dynasty and twills are 3/1, 1/1 having six healds in its structure. "Ling" in the period of Han dynasty have the beads figure(粒狀紋) and one of the floating figured twills(浮文綾) which have plain woven structure, and the count of "Ling" of Han dynasty is about 36-40×34, so it is rather coarse. About "Ling" of six dynasty, its count is 95×72, so this is very fine fabrics and have "plain four harness twill". And, in the period of Tang dynasty, "Ling" had been diversified into three harness, Four harness, Six harness twill. In addition, Huling(胡綾) which was made in the age of Ran dynasty show curtural exchange between the East and the West in the fabric culture Before and After Christ. (5) "Chin" is refered in books like. shin ching(詩經), tso chuan(左傳) in the period of Chun chiu(春秋), and as an excayation there is "Combined Figure Chin" which is mixture of small figure and Ling bsing pattern(菱形紋). And, this proves that figured Chin was woyen by T'i hua method(提花法) using Draw loom. Two folded twistless yarns were used for Chin, and bouble, triple warpchins were woven in the period of Civil Wars. The Chih Ch'eng Chin(織成錦) and Raised Chin are superior in numbers in the age of Han dynasty. Under the influence of Sasanian Persia, Weft Chin which was multi-figured and twill woven started to appear in the age of Six dynasty. And, in the period of T' and dynasty, Weft Chin which was mixed with patterns of Sasanian Persia had been superior to other pattern styles and Yun chien chin(운문금) can be seen easily, too. (6) The oldest excavation of sha(紗) is that which was woven in the age of Civil Wars. Sha in the age of Han dynasty is woven in the style at Ling shing pattern(菱形紋), and number of twist of yarns consist Sha reach about 2500-3000 per I meter, similar to that of machinery twisting, and this show the superiority of Sha. (7) The oldest ones of the excavations like Lo; gauze(羅), Chi(綺), so chuan(縮絹), chou(추), chui chih; file-(추직), Damask, were known as the relics which were made in the age of Handynasty. The oldest excavation of dyed fabrics was also known as a relic of Han dynasty, and Tz'u-hsiu; Exquiste embroideries(剌繡) is known as a relic in the period of Civil Wars. And, especially in the age of Han dynasty, there are lot of Tzu-hsiu fabric relics which are mostly woven by chain stich method. (8) Concerned with dyeing. the major dyestuffs in the age of Shien-chin(先秦) are four species of ch'lien ken(천근), Tzu tsao(紫草), chin tsao(藎草), lan(藍) and the major colors are scarlet (紅), deep red (絳), thin red (縉), purple (천), orange, reddish yellow(전) red(주), dark red(훈), Light red(제), Green(綠), thin green, thin Yellow(總), Purple (紺). Violet(繰). In the records, it is written that six species of major dyeing colors in the age of Tang dynasty are blue, red, yellow, white, purple, black, and in dyeing method, there are variegation(□힐), battik(□힐), printing(夾힐), painting(繪) and general dip dyeing method. (9) The styles of pattern in the period of Yang-so period (仰韶期) are mainly geometrical ones. And, in the age of Yin, Chou dynasty, pattern was built up by mixture of reptiles pattern like t'ao te pattern(□□文) elephantpheonix pattern(象鳳文), Wave pattern(蟬文). And, in the age of Civil Wars, small dragon pattern(훼룡문) was used. And, in the age of Han dynasty, animal pattern of chinese pheonix, turtle, Dragon, giraffe, mandarin duck were used. And, in the age of Tang dynasty, imaginary flower pattern(寶相華文), lotus pattern(唐草文) and lucky sign character pattern were used. Especially in the age of Tang dynasty, there are lot of symmetrical animal pattern, Hoping for long life pattern, pearl chain pattern which were came from the western world. Like this, they used percian style of figures for their fabrics, and this proves that there were frequent cultural and trade change through silk Road. (10) "Pei-chuan" was woven by Yao-chi(要機) and the complicated fabrics like "Chin" was woven Drawing loom(空引機). (11) The areas of silk fabrics production in the age of Shien-chin(先秦) were Ho sheng(河南省) shan-tung-sheng(山東省) and Shan-hsi-sheng(陝西省) and Shan tung sheng(山東省) in the age of Han dynasty, and Kuan net tao(關內道), Ho nan tao(河南道), Ho pei tao(河北道), shan-nan tao(山南道), chin nan tao(進南道), Chien nan tao(劍南道) in the age of Tang dynasty.
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