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閨恨錄의 隨筆的 性格에 대한 硏究

閨恨錄의 隨筆的 性格에 대한 硏究
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(A) Study of the characteristics of "Gyuhanrog" as an essay
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대학원 국어국문학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Tho essay may be characterized by the naturalness of its plot construction and the openness of its form. These characteristics of the essay have led one to a common view that the essay easily (or logically) be analyzed, and such a view has indeed been a major obstacle to the study of the essay. Nonetheless we cannot make progress in the literary study of the essay until we recognize that the naturalness and the openness of an essay must be approached and proved in a consistent analysis of its form. From this point of view, this thesis attempts to put forward the characteristics of a newly discovered early-19th century piece of work, "Gyuhanrog," as an essay by analyzing its content and form. Chapter One gives a brief introduction to the work, showing that its author was Mrs. Lee, the eldest and. only daughter-inlaw and widow in the eighth-generation descendant family of the great literary figure of the Yi Dynasty Yun Seon Do. Chapter Two is concerned with the ideological backgrounds of the work. It is shown that the traditional Confuciunist way of life stressing the norm of conduct called Sam-gang-o-ryun, the Buddhist view of life as being transient and cyclic, the Shmanistic belief that the author might become a remorseful ghost and Sil-hag thought calling for equality constitute the complex ideological backgrounds of the work. Chapter Three analyzes the content of the work in terms of its thematic construction and the methods of expression employed in it. By rearranging the entire array of episodes appearing in a disorderly fashion in the work, an attempt is made to reveal the mentality of the writer of the work. The writer seems to have a strong pride in her position as the eldest daughter-in-law of the great Yun family, which may be interpreted as one way of realizing her accomplishment drive, and she also exhibits an instinctive consciousness of maternity deeply embedded in her mentality. On the basis of this observation, it has been possible to derive the deeplevel theme han ('grief-regret-remorse-deploration'). It may be described as a conflict of the consciousness and the unconsciousness of the writer who keenly seeks her independent identity and individual status. The author's four repeated requests that her writing be preserved make it possible that the work can be divided into four parts. Each of the four parts contains the following seven same materials: (1) home management, (2) disharmony among family members, (3) doubts about her life, (4) the present feeling of the writer, (5) the problem of the adoption of a son, (6) rationale for her prolonged life and (7) requests for the perservation of her work. These materials appear sporadically and repeatedly one after another in each part. The mode of plot construction may be compared to a picaresque structure in that it takes the form of random enumeration. To account for the method of expression, an analysis of the meaning relations of the beginning and concluding parts of the work has been made. The result shows that the four parts of the work can be connected in the form of a spiral spring, revealing the modes of condensation and extension. The writer employs a descriptive method rather than an expository method, and, in doing so, enhances the emotional mood of the work. It is remarkable that a sizeable amount of vocabulary which seems to have been borrowed from Yeol-Yeo-Chun-Hyang-Su-Jeol-Ga can be found throughout the work and that those words and cliches have been adequately adapted to the need of the writer to achieve a rather personal way of expression. Chapter Four concentrates on the characterization of the work on the basis of the results of the discussion in the previous Chapters. Professor Yo-Sun Park (1970) regarded this work as a Yi Dynasty novel. This study rejects Park's view, and shows that the work is markedly different from the antique novel. We cannot find anything similar to a series of events, i.e., the running into a trouble, the overcoming of the trouble and a resulting compensation, which is typical of the antique novel. There occur few stereotype expressions in this work, which can be invariably found in the antique novel. The ways of expression of the work seem unique and specific, suitable only to the writer herself. The characteristics of the work as an essay may be pointed out as follows: (1) this work is a description of the fac ts that the writer has experienced, (2) it is the writer's confession, a natural overflow of the writer's lnind and heart, (3) it is intended as an emotional catharsis by self-reflection, (4) it shows a naturalness in its plot construction and an openness in its form, (5) its plot construction is fragmentary, never requiring a conclusion, and (6) it is full of personal ways of expression, which leads us to the view that it is the mirror of the writer herself. No doubt these characteristics seem to provide an impetus to a literature of self-reflection--- the essay. The process in which the writer describes her feelings and experiences in her work may be liken to a typical process of self-discovery of a man: the first part of the work abruptly begins with the writer's sentiment of discontent and conflict, and then her violent emotional struggle is described in the second part, and next in the third part her turbulent emotion calms down, and she reflects for a while and recovers her composure and critical spirit, and finally in the fourth part the writer comes back to her reality as a daughter-in-law. This sort of personal process must be the basis on which a literary essay can be embodied, a direction in which the literature of self-reflection should be developed. It is the literary value of the essay "Gyuhanrog" that has made it possible so far to discuss the core characteristics of the essay successfully as we have done thus far.;隨筆의 性格은 構成의 自然性과 形式의 開放性에 있다. 이 性格은 隨筆을 쉽게 分析할 수 없다는 판단아래 적극적인 隨筆硏究態度에 장해가 되어 왔다. 그러나 個體的인 隨筆의 形式 속에서 形式의 開放性과 構成의 自然性을 증명해야 하는 고충 속에 隨筆의 本領이 있다고 본다. 本 論文은 이러한 觀點에서 새로 發見된 「閨恨錄」의 內容 分析을 시도했고 그 隨筆的 性格을 살펴 보았다. Ⅰ章에서는 「閨恨錄」의 간단한 소개로 孤山 尹善道의 八代 宗孫婦되는 李氏夫人의 作品임을 밝혔다. Ⅱ章에서는 三綱五倫의 행실 규범을 나타내고 있는 儒敎思想, 無常과 輪廻思想의 人生觀이 나타나는 佛敎思想, 寃鬼가 될까 두려워하는 샤마니즘, 純祖朝에 비롯된 身分制度의 붕괴와 더불어 個我的 평등사상을 指向하는 近代的 精神의 實學思想 등이 이 作品의 思想的 背景을 이루고 있음을 밝혔다. Ⅲ章에서는 作品 內容 分析으로 作者의 人生觀과 意識構造·主題構成·表現方法을 살펴 보았다. 먼저 作者의 意識構造는 作品 전체의 이야기 構造를 順次的으로 재조립하여 女子의 成就地位에 따라 宗婦意識 밑에 본능적인 「母性性」이 있음을 알았다. 이를 바탕으로 深層 主題 「恨」을 抽出했으며 意識과 無意識에서 相衡하는 「恨」의 代表作임을 획득지위로서 증명했다. 構成의 特性은 作品外的 要索로 삽입된 「作品保存」에 대한 당부의 말에서 時間的인 간격이 나타나 4부로 나눌 수 있었다. 이는 또한 素材의 共有로서도 독립될 수 있었다. 공통적인 素材는 대략 일곱가지로 ① 齊家, ② 家族간의 不和, ③ 自己 人生에 대한 회의, ④ 現在의 作者의 심경, ⑤ 양자문제, ⑥ 偸生한 理由, ⑦ 作品 保存 부탁이 선후없이 산발적으로 나타나기를 거듭한다. 4부가 모두 같은 素材를 共有하므로 이야기 構造는 나열型을 이루고 있다. 表現의 方法에서는 文章 序頭와 結語의 意味體系 分析 結果, 응축과 확산의 대립 형상을 이루어 4부를 연결하니 굴러가는 고리쇠 형태로서 作品의 構成에 나타난 나열型과 비슷한 형태를 취하고 있다. 表現에 있어서는 설명적이기 보다 描寫的이어서 作品의 mood를 向上시켰고 語彙에서는 특히 「烈女春香 守節歌」중 이별 장면을 借用했으나 作者의 모습에 맞춰 變形한 個性的인 表現法이었다. Ⅳ章에서는 Ⅱ章 Ⅲ章에서 抽出한 特性을 바탕으로 作品의 性格을 살폈다. 특히 朴堯順 교수의 李朝「小說」로 보는 견해에 대한 反證으로서 古代小說의 一般論에 비추어 볼 때 제3부의 객관적인 事件의 描寫 外에는 構成과 形式에서 古代小說과는 판이함을 알았다. 古代小說의 어느 類型에도 예외되며, 구성상 고난·극복·보상이 없다. 물론 인물 또한 한 쪽으로만 치우치지 않은 個性的이다. 表現에 있어서도 作者에게만 맞는 一回的이다. 이 作品의 隨筆的 性格으로는 ① 이 作品은 作者가 體驗한 事實이며, ② 作者의 마음 속 告白이며 自然的인 流露이고, ③ 作者의 회의와 反省을 통한 감정의 淨化이고, ④ 作品의 構成의 自然性은 곧 形式의 開放이고, ⑤ 作品의 構成은 단편적이며 결코 完結을 요하지 않으며, ⑥ 個性的인 表現은 作者를 비추는 거울이라는점 등을 들 수 있다. 이는 自照文學이 形成될 수 있는 背景 속에서 보다 완숙하게 표현된다는 것을 作品의 구성에 나타나고 있는 作者의 態度에서 살필 수 있다. 1부에서는 作者의 不滿과 갈등이 돌출한다. 2부에서 작자는 격렬한 감정의 홍역을 치른다. 3부에는 작자의 이완된 감정이 나타나고 자기반성과 더불어 정확한 비판정신을 회복한다. 4부에서 작자는 종부로서의 현실적 생활로 돌아온다. 이와 같은 과정은 人間이 흔히 반복하는 自己摸索 過程 그것이다. 이 과정이야말로 수필작품이 형상될 수 있는 기본적인 態度며 「나」를 主體로 하는 自照文學이 추구해야 할 길이라고 생각된다. 이와 같이 隨筆文學의 핵심적 특성에 대한 논의를 가능하게 해 주는 점에서 우리는 「閨恨錄」의 文學的 가치를 보게 된다.
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