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1920年代 在日韓人의 民族運動
- 1920年代 在日韓人의 民族運動
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- (A) Study on the national movement of korean residents in japan for independence in the 1920's : With special emphasis on the cooperation movement between nationalist and socialist
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- 대학원 사학과
- 재일한인; 민족운동; 협동전선운동
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- In this thesis I have tried to trace out the activities for Korean independence in the 1920's by Korean residents in Japan, who went through the period of promoting their power and capacity for independence and enhancing their spirit for independence and liberalization. They found out that their quest for national independence would not be successfully carried out only through their watchword of "Independence", even under the following circumstances prevalent in those days :
(1) the liberal atmosphere of Japanese society under the system of Washington after the World war I, and
(2) the Cultured Policy adopted by Japanese colonial officials after the Independence Movement in March 1919 in the Korean peninsular.
Under the new system of the world after world war I, Japan was promoted up to one of the big five world powerful countries and enjoyed the liberalism of Taejeong (大正) Democracy with the support of Party Politics in the 1920's. The Korean anti-Japan Movement in Japan had been mainly done by students studying there. As they were considered the highest intelligentsia of Korea which was then the colony of Japan. Their independence movement gave the strong impact on Korean peoples and brought Korean people into taking part in several resistance movement in Korea. Therefore, among the several groups it was student's group that took the most positive role in the movement. They adopted the mottoes, "Learning and Friendship" for the outward demonstration purpose but it was actually a resistant group in which they inculcated in each other the principles of independence and self-respect. Among the students' groups, Tongkyung Cheseon Hackwoowhoe (東京朝鮮學友會) especially tried their uttermost to inculcate in people the national spirit by means of the publication of its bulletin, Hackjikwang (學之光) and various meetings for those causes. The Korean YMCA first organized there put forward the outward slogans of religious mission and mutual friendship and students played an active role. Their YMCA hall was a place where they maintained the principle of anti-Japanese movement. Besides this, there were also several groups such as Cheondogyo Cheongnyunwhae Tonggyungbo(天道敎 靑年會 東京部), Choseonhackwhae (朝鮮學會), Choseon Yeoja Hackheungwhae (朝鮮女子學興會), Hankook Boolgyo Hacksaengwhae (韓國佛敎學生會), etc. They all tried inculcate Korean residents with national spirit and anti-Japanese feeling, acting the initiating part for Korean residents in Japan.
The Korean residents in Japan changed their course in the movement of improving their power, believing that Independence would be realized not through the nominal support of the world Powers but through our people's enlightening power, for they got disappointed in the result of 'the Washington Conference' in the year of 1921. Besides, about that time social ideoloty began to flow in and influenced the movement so that some of Korean reside came to be affected in their thought. With the organization of Heuckdowhae (黑濤會) in November 1921, socialism began to affect Korean residents. In December 1921, Park Yeol (朴烈) and his followers with an anarchic spirit seceded from Heuckdowhae and organized Heuckpoongwhae (黑風會) on their own initiatives.
In January 1922, some communists such as Kim Yak Soo (金若水), Ahn Kwang Cheon (宋光泉), Lee Yeo Seung (李如星) and others organized Bookseongwhae (北星會). Therefore, Korean residents were devided into 3 factions, thatis, nationalist, anarchist and communist and they were in opposition with each other. The principal organ of nationalists, Hackwoowhae concentrated its effort on enlightment movement by sending its lecturing student group to Korea every summer vacation and gave an impetus to nationallsm and led the movement of cultivating national energy through the publication of bulletin, Hackjikwang, the oratorical contests and athletic meeting while Heukpoongwhae and Bookseongwhae sent their enlightening groups inland topropagandize socialism or communism, too. All these movements and also given strong impact Laborers in Ohsaka (大阪) were organized. Since then, various organizations of Korean labors had been shaped up. Besides them, those of young men and women came into being on the stage in succession, too. The three factions of nationalist, anarchist and communist expanded their own activities respectively even though they were in discord and under much difficult condition. They strived after their own ideological doctrines through the announcement of manifestoes and propagandas on such memorial days such as March 1st, August 29th, September 1st, etc and through the publication of their own tracts. Though the three factions of them had primarily the same idea and principles of anti-Japanese, their opposition against each other had caused an unfavorable result.
With the failure of the independence movement in Korea on the 1st of March, due to Japanese military intervention, compromising nationalists contrived to get promoted in social status and tried to do self-governing movement in the Korean peninsular, realizing that they could not get independence from Japanese rule. However, the public opinion was against them, so uncompromising nationalists wanted to cooperate with radical anti-Japanese people.
On the other hand, socialists inland understood that The independence would not be realized by such a newly rising power of small groups and recongnized that their first task would be to cooperate with nationalists, forming a joint-front resistance group against Japan and finally get their goal of Korean liberation.
Encountering such needs of times, they established a united cooperating organization called shinganwhae (新幹會). In January 1927, Tonggyung Choseon Hackwoowhae proposed that all the Korean groups in Japan should unite for their objective, excluding pro-Japanese groups and should act harmoniously each. other on several memorial days, with a firm advocacy as follows: "All the Koreans in Japan should do everything they could for their lofty idea of liberation and independence and should fight against Japan." As the result of this unification process nationalist, communists and others got together so as to establish an unified body of Choseonin Danche Hyeopeuiwhae(朝鮮人 團體 協議會).
Also, in Tokyo, Shinganwhae had its branch office which was set up by Cheon Jin Han (錢鎭漢). He was a key staff of Hyeopdong Chohap Woondongsa (協同組合運動社). Shinganwhae expanded its network of the system even to Ohsaka, Kyoto (京都) and Nagoya (各古屋). In January 1928, the Tokyo branch of Keunwoowhae (槿友會), the united organization was founded and in September 1927, Impeachment Union of the Governor-General Politics (總督政治彈劾期成同盟會) was founded. All those organizations, that were fruits of a united front movement aimed at accelerating their anti-Japanese movement. However, since 1928, they had been gradually infiltrated and overwhelmed by left-wing elements like Choseon Kongsandang Ilbonboo (朝鮮共産黨日本部) and Koryo Kongsan Cheongnyunwhae Ilbonboo (高麗共産靑年會日本部). Also in headquarters of Shinganwhae inland, they became a puppet of commumsists from 1928 through 1929, but Japanese authorities cracked down fiercely on extreme leftists by arresting choseon Kongsandang (朝鮮共産黨) and Koryo Kongsa Cheongnyunwhae (高麗共産靑年會). After this, nationalists seemed to have an initiative for a moment. However Shinganwhae wanted to dismember itself finally, because some remaining members failed to keep them united in opinions for the hard-job of maintenance of the organization. They thought that hey could do harm even to the movement of labor unions and agricultural unions if they continued to cooperate with those bourgeoisies in such a way, and hoped that labor and agricultura unions would find their own way respectively. Actually their organization was that Comintern, the center of world Communism, presented as their password the solgan of the following: "Fight jointly with the native factors in the colonies or semi-colonies For that reason, Shinganwhae decided to end up their activity in 1931 and its branches came to close down their function as a mat of course. Therefore, the Korean national movement in Japan was led into a stagnancy. Moreover in the 1930's, Japan began to prepare the agression to China using Korea as the base of operations and began to rule over Korean people more severely. Korean people's Independence movement was faced with great difficulty.
Though they were lacking in their national integrity or identity to keep their independent movement going on, their historical role can never be underestimated.;1920年代 日本의 社會情勢는 第一次世界大戰 이후 이른바 「워싱턴體制」라는 새로운 國際秩序 下에서 「大正 데모크라시」라 일컫는自由主義的 분위기가 일시적으로 풍미하였다.
한편 3.1運動 以後 日帝의 欺瞞的인 「文化政治」 아래 民族獨立의 口號만으로는 民族의 獨立이 요원하다는 자각 아래 海外의 獨立運動者들은 「武裝獨立運動」으로, 武裝獨立運動이 不可能했던 韓半島 內部의 民族主義者들은 소극적인 運動方便으로서의 「實力養成運動」으로 民族獨立運動의 路線을 변경하게 된다.
이러한 時代的 背景 아래 日本에 있어서의 民族獨立運動은 在日韓人의 대부분을 차지하는 勞動者를 運動의 基盤으로 하고 韓半島內의 民族獨立運動과의 긴밀한 관련 아래 전개되었다.
1920年代 在日韓人의 思想動向은 종래의 民族主義系와 함께 러시아革命이후 수입된 無政府主義系, 共産主義系로 나뉘어 그 나름대로의 활동을 전개하였다. 그러나 이때의 다양한 사상운동이 추구하는 궁극의 목표가 民族의 獨立과 自由에 있었음은 두말 할 나위도 없다.
그러나 民族의 獨立이라는 大前提아래에서는 分散된 活動보다는 民族의 總力量을 結集하여 共同步調를 취하는 것이 바람직하리라는 時代的 要請에 따라 協同戰線運動이 일어나게 되었다.
韓半島 內에서는 自治運動에 反對하는 非妥協的 民族主義系列과, 日帝의 檢擧와 彈壓으로 그 活動이 어려웠던 社會主義系列은 日帝라는 共同의 敵과 싸워 民族獨立을 達成하려는 것을 當面 課題로 하여 協同戰線團體 新幹會를 組織하였다. 在日 韓人間에는 이미 이전부터 協同戰線的 움직임이 있어 왔으며 1927年5月 서울에서의 新幹會 結成을 前後하여 朝鮮人團體協議會, 新幹會支會, 槿友會支會,總督政治彈劾期成同盟會 등의 協同戰線團體가 組織되었다. 이러한 團體들은 각종 記念日 行事를 利用한 鬪爭등 활발한 運動을 展開하였다.
在日韓人의 協同戰線運動의 意義를 찾는다면 그것이 1920年代이후 急增한 韓人 勞動者를 基盤으로 하는 大衆運動이었다는 점과 日本에서의 協同戰線運動이 韓半島內의 運動과 긴밀한 연관아래 이루어졌다는 점이다. 또 日本에서는 韓半島 內에서보다 言論, 出版, 集會의 制限이 덜한 점을 利用하여 最大限의 活動에 힘썼다고 하는 점과 日本人團體에 合流하지 않으면서 共同鬪爭을 전개한 점도 손꼽을 수 있다.
그러나 일년남짓 활발한 活動을 벌였던 在日 協同戰線團體들은 協同戰線 內部의 對立과 新幹會 本部와의 對立, 日帝의 계속되는 彈壓 등으로 점차 침체상태가 되어 갔다. 특히 協同戰線運動의 大衆的 基盤이었던 在日勞總이 1929年末부터 全協에로 解消되어 감으로써 民族協同戰線은 붕괴되어 가서 1931年5月 新幹會 本部가 코민테른의 戰術변경에 따라 자진 해체를 선언하는 시기를 전후해서는 日本에서의 協同戰線團體들도 거의 消滅의 狀態가 되어 갔다.
그러나 在日韓人의 協同戰線運動은 民族獨立이라는 課題에 正面으로 도전한 大衆運動이었으며, 1920年代 後半 國內外에서 일어난 協同戰線運動의 一環으로서 특히 植民地 本國에서 일어난 운동이었다는 점에서도 그 의의가 큰것이다.
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