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日帝下 民間紙 資本의 性格에 關한 硏究

Title
日帝下 民間紙 資本의 性格에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the nature of the non-governmental newspapers' capital in the colonial korea under japanese imperialism
Authors
李景淑.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
민족자본삼대민간지자본성격
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
우리나라는 1876年 開港以後 外國資本主義의 影響과 韓國民의 自主的 近代化의 要請에 따라 近代的인 會社가 設立된 바 있었다. 그러나 日帝의 韓國倂合으로 우리 민족의 自主的 近代化의 움직임은 좌절되며 韓國社會는 「植民地 商業資本主義體制」라는 前近代的인 性格을 지니게 된다. 이러한 狀況에서도 우리民族의 近代化를 향한 要求는 會社令廢止 및 「土地調査事業」 以後, 土地資本의 近代企業 投資로 나타나며 「東亞日報」「朝鮮日報」「時事新聞」이 創刊되기에 이른다. 특히 이 民間紙들은 土地資本, 商業資本, 日帝의 支援 等 多樣한 資本을 基盤으로 운영되어졌으며 日帝의 植民地 政策과 資本의 性格에 따라 民間紙의 性格이 規定되어졌다. 本稿는 日帝植民地下의 歷史的 條件과 關聯하여 日帝下 民間紙 資本의 性格을 實證的으로 論證해 보고자 한 것이다. 먼저 序論에서 日帝植民地下 三大民間紙를 「民族資本」의 側面에서 다루는 課題意識을 밝히고 第Ⅱ章에서는 三大民間紙의 資本의 性格을 밝히기 위한 先行作業으로 民族資本의 槪念을 規定해 본 동시에 日帝植民地下 民間紙資本의 成立背景 및 「民族資本」의 樣態를 實證的으로 살펴보았다. 槪念規定에서는 土着資本 全體를 民族資本으로 간주한 從來의 一般的인 槪念規程을 지양하고, 民族에 대한 經濟的 寄與度에 따라 土着資本을 民族資本과 買辨資本(隸屬資本)으로 區別하였으며 또한 民族資本을 隸屬性의 强弱에 따라 妥協的 民族資本, 非妥協的 民族資本으로 구분 지었다. 第Ⅲ章에서는 「三大民間紙의 形成과 그 資本의 性格」에 대해 考察하였다. 「東亞日報」는 湖南의 大地主 金性洙, 金軍洙 兄弟의 財力이 그 經濟的 基盤의 主軸을 이루는데 이들은 地主制를 바탕으로 成長한 大土地所有者(2,800町步, 1924年)였다. 이들은 土地資本의 一部를 産業資本으로 轉換하여 韓國의 近代化를 先導하였을 뿐 아니라 民族主義의 시대적 추세에 부응해 敎育·言論機關에도 投資하는 等 우리 民族經濟의 先驅者的인 位置를 점유하기에 이른다. 그러나 이들은 半封建的 地主制를 바탕으로 富를 축적해 가는 限界性과 아울러 日帝의 資金支援을 受諾함으로써 차츰 隷屬的인 性向을 나타냈다. 「朝鮮日報」는 日帝末期 廢刊될 때까지 9名의 經營陳이 바뀌는 不安定한 財務構造를 갖다가 橋洞金鑛을 발굴한 바 있는 方應謨의 經營參與로 安定化된다. 그러나 方應謨 역시 金鑛을 近代産業으로 發展시키지 않고 日本資本家에게 賣渡한 前近代的 商業資本家였으며 日帝와 원만한 유대관계를 지속해 나갔다. 「時事新聞」에서 「朝鮮中央日報」에 이르는 또 하나의 民間紙들은 大資本家들이 經營에 참여하지 않고 群小資本家들이 主軸이 되어 신문사를 운영한 결과 資金難으로 版權이 자주 바뀌어졌다. 따라서 資本의 性格에 따라 民間紙로 되었다가 다시 變身하는 等 일관성이 결여되었다. 여기서는 民族資本에 의해 운영된 「中外日報」 社長 安熙濟의 資本의 性格을 중점적으로 究明하였다. 安熙濟는 白山商會를 設立하여 慶南의 土地資本을 商業資本化시킨 中心人物이었으며 獨立運動資金을 조달한 非妥協的 民族資本家였다. 第Ⅳ章에서는 三大民間紙들의 資本의 性格에 따라 變化되는 編輯構成 및 그 虛構性을 3期로 나누어 살펴보았다. 第1期(1920∼1923)에서 東亞日報는 民族經濟의 先導的인 役割과도 관련하여 抗日論調를 展開해 갔으나 第2期(1924∼1929)에는 自治路線을 主唱하는 등 타협적 민족주의적 立場을 取한 결과 日帝의 資金支援을 받게 된 반면에 群小資本家로 구성된 朝鮮日報는 日帝의 民族분할통치책에 대응하기 위해 결성된 「新幹會」의 기관지적인 性格을 갖고 항일논조를 펴나갔다. 第3期(1930∼1936)에서는 日帝의 강압정책에 순응하는 면모를 드러내어 정치적, 사상적 記事보다 일상생활적, 순수문화적, 오락적 記事가 主宗을 이루고 「브·나로드運動」(東亞), 「生活改新運動」(朝鮮)등은 「文化主義」를 표방한 日帝의 기만적인 懷柔政策과 一脈 相通되는 文化運動을 主唱하기에 이른다. 이때 「朝鮮中央日報」는 資本의 영세성에도 불구하고 抗日論調를 펴지만 資金難과 日章旗抹消事件으로 廢刊된다. 以上에서 日帝의 植民地 統治策과 民間紙의 資本의 性格 그리고 新聞編輯論調가 相互關聯되어 있음을 알 수 있었으며 日帝下의 어려운 與件下에서, 一部 民間紙의 경우, 段階的인 狀況變化와도 관련하여 그 性格의 變化를 나타내면서도 民族資本家에 의해 운영되었다는 사실을 實證的으로 論證하였다.;After the opening of ports in 1876 in Korea, some modernized enterprises were established by the influence of foreign capitalism and also by the request of our Korean people for subjective modernization. The annexation by Japanese imperialism, however, ruined this movement for subjective modernization completely, and as a result, the Korean society was put under the "colonial trade capitalistic system," a society with pre-modernized character. Even under this situation, the demand of Korean people for modernization transferred their land capital into industry capital, after the abolition of "Company Ordinance" (社會令) and the "Land Investigation programme" undertaken. Also, "Dong-Ah Daily Newspaper", "Chosun Daily Newspaper" and "Sisa Newspaper" were founded. Especially these non-governmental papers were run by various economic ground such as land capital, trade capital, and sometimes with the support from Japanese Impire. The anti-Japanese comments, shown through these papers, changed its aspects according to the nature of their capital and the colonial policies of Japan. This thesis aims to positively demonstrate the nature of our national capital, through the three non-governmental newspapers, in relation to the historical conditions of colonial Korea under the Japanese imperialistic rule. Introduction was to clarify my awareness of this subject that the three non-governmental newspapers should be considered in the aspects of national capital. In chapter Ⅱ, as a prior work for proving the nature of the capital of the these newspapers, I explained positively the concepts of the national capital as well as the background of its establishment and development under the Japanese Imperialism. Instend of the traditional concept which considers the whole native capital as our national capital, I devided the native capital, by the extent of its economic contribution to the nation, into national and comprador (subordinate) capitals, and again divided the national capital into compromising and non-compromising ones by the standard of whether it is subordinated to Japan or not. Chapter Ⅲ was about "the formation of the three non-governmental newspapers and the nature of their capital." "Dong-Ah Daily Newspaper" was financially based on the wealthy brothers Kim, Sung-Soo and Kim, Yeon-Soo who were large landowners (2,800 Jungbo, in 1924) in the southwestern part of Korea. They could be called "Pioneers of our national economy" -- not only transferring part of their land capital into industry capital and consequently leading modernization of Korea, but also investing in education and mass media, meeting the needs of our nationalism at that time. Their wealth, however, being accumulated based on the semi-feudalistic landowner system, set limits to them, and at the same time, they became gradually subordinated to Japanese Impire by accepting its financial support. "Chosun Daily Newspaper" being under financially unstable situation with its manager changed nine times until discontinuation, became financially stable by Bang, Eung-Mo's participation in the management, who had digged out gold at Kyodong Mine. However, Bang, Eung-Mo was also found to be a pre-moderned commercial capitalist. He did not develop his mine into modern industry and sold it to a Japanese capitalist, and the harmonious relationship between him and the Japanese Impire shows that he was a capitalist also subordinated to Japan. The other non-governmental newspapers like "Sisa Newspaper" and "Chosun-Jung ang Daily Newspaper" were managed not by large capitalists, buy by minor capitalist, which resulted in frequent changes of copyright holder due to the financial difficulties. These newspapers could not keep consistency -- sometimes they were national and sometimes pro-Japanese, depending on the nature of the capital. Here, I concentrated on the nature of the capital of "Chung Oe Daily Newspaper," run by Ahn Hee-Jae, a non-compromising national capitalist. He founded the "Baek San Trading Company," transfering the land capital of southeastern part of Korea into a commercial one, and financially supported the movement for the independence of Korea. In chapter Ⅳ, I examined the editing frameworks and their falsehood of the above-mentioned three non-governmental newspapers, which were changed according to the nature of their capital, through the three periods of Japanese rule. At the first period (1920 - 1923), Dong Ah Daily Newspaper was publishing its press comments against Japan, as it was leading the national economy. At the second period (1924 - 1929), however, when it was run by subordinated capital, "Dong Ah" took a compromising nationalistic position, advocating the self-support of Korean people. On the other hand, Chosun Daily Newspaper, consisted of minor capitalists, was keeping the anti-Japanese press comments, somewhat showing the characteristic of the bulletin of "Shin Gan Whoe" (親幹會), which was organized to confront the nation divide and rule policy of Japan. At the third period (1930 - 1936) adapting to the severe oppression of Japanese rule, the main themes of the newspaper articles were, rather than politics or ideology, about daily lives, pure literature, and recreation, advocating "cultural movement" coping with the Japanese Culturist Rule such as "Ve Marod Movement (브·나로드運動)" (Dong Ah) and "Life-reform Movement" (Chosun). Chosun-Jung ang Daily Newspaper, despite of its small-size capital, tried to continue the anti-Japanese press comments, but it was stopped publishing due to the financial difficulties and the event of Japanese flag erasement. As to the stated above, we could know that the editing frameworks of the non-governmental newspapers, the nature of their capital, and the Japanese ruling policies were related with each other. And it is concluded that only a few of the non-governmental newspapers were managed by our national capitalists under the Japanese imperialistic rule.
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