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光武年間의 貨幣改革論 硏究
- 光武年間의 貨幣改革論 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) Study of the currency reform movements in the Kwangmu Era : Mainly on the reform attempts launched by Yi Yong Ik
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사학과
- 광무년; 화폐개혁론; 이용익; 개혁기도
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 大韓帝國이 宣布된 후 光武政權은 李容翊을 중심으로 幣制改革事業을 비롯한 貨幣改革政策을 추진하였다.
本稿에서는 光武年間의 幣制紊亂現象과 이에 대한 政府의 對策이 전개된 과정을 살펴보았는데, 다음과 같이 3가지 사실로 압축된다.
첫째, 「新式貨幣發行章程」의 제도적 모순에 기인하는 幣制紊亂을 根本的으로 개혁하기 위하여 金本位制를 채용하는 「貨幣條例」를 公布하고, 幣制改革者資金을 마련하기 위하여 各國에 借款交涉을 企圖하였다. 그러나 帝國主義列强相互間의 세력견제와 利權獲得競爭으로 방해를 받아 모두 실패하였다.
둘째, 資金難으로 本位貸를 鑄造하지 못한 가운데 過剩供給된 自銅貨의 價値가 下落하고 物價가 騰貴하는 白銅貨인플레이션이 악화되자 이에 대한 應急策으로서 白銅貨流通擴張策, 私鑄防止策을 실시하였다. 各地方의 公錢을 모두 白銅貨로 收納하도록 地方官에 엄명하고,白銅貸私鑄者와 私鑄機械·原料의 密輸入에 대한 단속을 강화하였으나 實效를 거두지 못하였다.
세째, 한국의 幣制紊亂狀況에 편승하여 日本貨幣流通圈을 확장하려는 日本의 植民地 金融體制構築企圖에 대항하는 政策과 운동을 전개하였다. 日本은 金本位制로 移行하여 한국에서 유통되고 있던 1圓銀貨와 日本銀行兌換券을 회수하게 되자, 貿易通貨의 결핍을 해결한다는 명목으로 刻印付圓銀을 발행, 유통시켰는데, 한국정부는 이것이 銀地金에 불과하다고 流通禁止令을 내리고 그 對應策으로서 本位銀貨를 鑄造하려고 하였다.
1900年代에 들어와 한국에서 유통되는 日本貨幣의 流通量이 현저하게 감소되자 日本은 植民地通貨로서의 第一銀行券을 발행하여 한국에 한하여 강제유통시켰다. 日本의 한국幣制의 植民地的 支配企圖를 간파한 政府는 그 유통을 금지시키고, 商人層과 함께 격렬하게 排斥運動을 전개하였다. 그러나 이는 日本의 軍事的 危脅등에 굴복하여 終熄되고 말았다.
이후 政府는 金融制度를 構築하기 위하여 「中央銀行條例」와 「兌換金券條例」를 公布하였으나 露日戰爭의 발발로 실시되지 못하였다.
즉 露日戰爭에서 승리하여 大韓帝國을 "保護國"으로 만든 日本에 의하여 貨幣整理事業이 실시됨으로써 近代的 貨幣制度와 金融制度를 獨自的으로 確立하려는 한국정부의 努力은 좌절된 것이다.;The Kwangmu Regime formed after Imperial Chosun's independence from the external powers was declared, adopted a policy for currency reform to be implemented by Yi Yong Ik through modification of the coinage system.
The currency problems of the Kwangmu Era and the governmental policies formulated to deal with them, as studied by the writer of this paper, have revealed the following three (3) major involvements.
First, the money system was extremely entangled because of the inconsistency or contradictions in "the Charter for New Currency Issue" (新式貨幣癸行章程) and, the adopted policy aimed at basic reforming of the system to establish a new monetary system independently. The Imperial Chosun's cabinet resolved at its Uijongbu (議政府) Conference to adopt the gold standard system and made public its "Currency Regulation" (貨幣條例). In order to secure the funds needed to implement the policy of currency reform, the government then went into negotiation with foreign countries for provision of loans. However, such attempts failed because of the foreign imperial powers who were concerned only for checking each other's influence in Korea and maintaining their own right of interest.
Second, as the standard coins failed to be minted because of fund shortage, the nickel coins excessively supplied continued to fall in value and the general price hiked up, causing a nickel inflation of a detoriorating nature. An emergency measure was taken to resolve the situation: it took the form of expanding the circulation of nickel and prohibiting the private mint of the nickel coins. All regional officials were instruced to collect the nickels for the public charges, fees and taxes. Surveillance of the private nickel mints and illegal imports of the private minting machines and raw materials was strengthened to a rigid extent, to block the source and route of private minting, with no practical effect.
Third, the government of Imperial Chosun, the Kwangmu Regime, launched a series of its moves to counter Japan's infiltration of extending its Yen-circulation areas and building its colonial monetary system in Korea. As the One-Yen silver coin and the Bank of Japan's covertible notes that had been in circulation in Korea came to be collected back due to adoption of the gold standard system, Japan issued seal-carved Yen silver coins and circulated them in Korea under the excuse of resolving the shortage in trade currency. The Korean government, however, ordered prohibition of them arguing that they were simply the ground metal of silver, and, as a counter measure the Korean government attempted to mint standard silver coin.
Coming into 1900's, the Japanese currency in circulation in Korea came to decrease remarkably. And, it promoted Japan to issue its First Bank's notes to function as its colonyuse money. Japan actually forced the notes' circulation in Korea. Well knowing that such an attempt on the side of Japan was to control the total Korean monetary system, the Kwangmu Regime banned the circulation of the Japan's bank notes, and, launched a vigorous and intense boycott jointly with the merchant class of Korean population. But, the boycott movements came to fade out eventually under the Japanese pressure of demonstrating its military strength.
Meanwhile, to built its own financial system, the government enacted the laws of "Central Bank" (中央銀行條例) and "Covertible Notes" (兌換金券條例).
However, Japan emerged as the victorious force of Russo-Japan War turning the Imperial Chosun into its protectorate, and, Japan then began to act on the currency and monetary system in Korea. Korea's independent moves for establishing the modern currency and banking system came to suffer a serious setback.
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