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北魏時代 漢族門閥 貴族에 대한 小考

Title
北魏時代 漢族門閥 貴族에 대한 小考
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Han Lineages in the northern Wei Dynasty Era
Authors
康靜雪.
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
북위시대한족문벌문벌귀족
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
北魏 時代의 漢族 門閥貴族은 北魏王朝와 함께 勢力을 유지해 나갔다. 北魏의 强力한 支配下에서 勢力을 굳건히 유지해 간 漢族 門閥貴族의 政治的 動向은 어떠하였는지 本稿에서는 다음의 몇가지 問題를 통하여 考察해 보았다. 첫째, 北魏初 漢族 門閥貴族의 動向과 狀況에 대해서 이다. 異民族 侵入에도 불구하고 漢族 豪族이 貴族으로 대두될 수 있었던 狀況을 살펴보았다. 漢族 貴族은 北族의 侵入으로 말미암아 무리를 지어 南渡하고 離散되었으나 華北에 잔류한 貴族들은 鄕里와의 연결을 잃지 않았으며 北魏初에 이르면 流寓貴族들도 鄕里와의 관계를 회복한다. 그리하여 그들은 鄕里에서 名望을 지니고 北魏의 建設 過程에서 貴族으로 存立할 수 있었다. 둘째, 北魏王朝의 中國化政策과 漢族 門閥貴族의 適應에 관하여 考察하였다. 北魏는 안정된 統一國家를 이끌어 나가기 위해서 先秦文化와 政治를 받아들이고 地方的 勢力을 가진 漢族 門閥貴族들을 회유해야만 했다. 그리하여 北魏는 스스로 中國化政策을 시행하고 九品中正制를 통하여 많은 漢族 門閥貴族을 등용하였다. 따라서 많은 漢族 門閥貴族이 政界로 進出하지만 政界에 있어서 漢族의 限界는 명백했다. 漢族 門閥貴族 또한 그들의 勢力을 유지하고 門閥을 보전하기위해서는 北魏 朝廷에 出仕하지 않을 수 없어 北魏王朝와 결탁하니, 北魏에는 異民族 王朝와 漢族 貴族이 각자의 勢力을 유지하며 共存하는 상태였다. 따라서 漢族은 北魏王朝에 완전히 굴복한 것이 아니라고 여겨진다. 셋째, 北魏의 九品中正制의 운용에 대해서 이다. 漢族의 事情에 어두운 北魏는 統治의 必要上 九品中正制를 실시하였다. 이 制度에 대한 主導權은 물론 北魏王朝가 가졌지만 中正에 임명된 人物들은 주로 一統 漢族 門閥이었고 子孫代代로 이어지고 있다. 이로 미루어보아 九品中正制가 漢族 門閥貴族의 勢力을 확대시키고 유지시키는데 重要한 역할을 하지않았을까 생각된다. 넷째, 北魏의 중추세력이 漢族 貴漢에게 미친 영향에 대한 것이다. 北魏初에는 中國化政策에 의해 漢族 貴族이 北族 貴族보다 우월하였다. 그러나 주로 武官으로 등용되었던 北族 貴族은 불만을 터뜨려 亂을 일으켜서 漢族 門閥貴族을 위협하여 文弱해진 北魏 王朝를 멸망케한 過程을 살펴보았다. 다섯째, 漢族 門閥貴族의 性格에 대해 考察하였다. 魏晋南北朝 門閥貴族의 性格에 대해서는 크데 두가지 說이 있다. 그 첫째는 門閥의 存立은 王朝의 保證에 의하지 않고 士大夫의 輿論 즉, 밑으로 부터 保證된 것이기 때문에 超時代的 超王朝的인 自律的 存在라는 說이다. 둘째로는 國家權力에 依存하는 寄生官僚的인 存在이며 後漢의 寄生官僚와 系譜的으로 連結되고, 時代的 특징으로서의 門閥貴族을 부정하는 門閥=寄生官僚라는 說이 있다. 물론 地方 鄕黨의 人物評은 中正이 人物의 鄕品을 決定하는데에 많은 영향을 주었고 鄕品은 官品에 연결되었음을 보여준다. 그리고 中正制가 운영됨에 따라서 人物의 品評은 점점 門閥 위주가 되고있다. 이때의 門閥貴族은 國家權力에 의하지 않고 自律的인 支配層이 되었던 면도 있지만 官史 任用에 대한 最終的 決定權은 國家側에 있었다. 따라서 國家權力과 鄕黨 社會와는 일종의 타협이 필요했다. 이러한 意味에서 門閥貴族은 外面的 形式的으로는 自律的으로 보이지만 그들이 軍事力을 지닌 有力者와 歷代 皇帝들의 周邊에서 세력을 유지하기 위해 노력했다는 점에서 門閥貴族과 王朝와의 관련성이 보인다. 따라서 門閥貴族은 앞의 두가지면을 다 가진 것이 아닌가 생각한다. 北魏에 있어서의 漢族 門閥貴族은 土着勢力으로 異民族 支配下에 存在하였으므로 南朝와는 그 性格을 달리하며 北魏王朝와 결탁은 하였으나 스스로 門閥의 긍지를 지녔다. 이와같은 北魏初의 漢族 門閥貴族의 動向과 狀況, 北魏의 中國化政策과 漢族, 貴族의 適應, 九品中正制의 운용, 北魏의 중추세력의 영향등 몇가지 問題를 통하여 北魏의 漢族 門閥貴族의 性格에 대해 살펴보았다. 여기서 北魏의 漢族 門閥귀족은 그들의 勢力을 유지하기 위해 北魏王朝와 결탁 했지만 결코 긍지를 잃지 않았으며 완전히 北魏王朝에 굴복한 것은 아니었다고 여겨진다.;In the Northern Wei dynasty period, the Han lineages preserved their power existing with the Northern Wei dynasty. In this thesis, the political trend of Han lineages whose power was firmly maintained though being under the mighty reign of Northern Wei is to be studied through the following approaches: First, the situation of the Han lineage in the early Northern Wei dynasty period, that is, the situation in which the landowning families of Han could be raised as bureaucratic class under the Northern invaders was observed. In consequence of Northern nomads' invasion, a party of Han lineage migrated into the yantz valley, or were scattered wandering. On the other hand, a party remained in china were still in contact with their home towns. By the time of early northern Wei dynasty period, the wandering Han lineages also could return and settle in their home town. Therefore the Han lineage, with reputation in their home town, could be existed as bureaucratic class in the course of Northern Wei's foundation. Second, the Northern Wei's assimilatory policy toward china and the Han lineage's adaptation to Northern Wei were observed. To lead the unified and stabilized country, the Northern Wei had to accept the advanced ideas in politics and culture and to appease the powerful Han lineages. Hence the Northern Wei, of his own initiative, carried out the assimilatory policy toward china and appointed the Han lineage through the Chiu-p'in Kuan-je^n-fa. And though the Han lineage entered political circles, they were limited in their political activity. As they served for Northern Wei dynasty, being in collusion with him in order to preserve their power and the value of lineage, in the Northern Wei dynasty period, the dynasty of Northern people and the Han lineage became coexisted keeping their each power. Now it is supposed that the Han lineage did not surrender entirely to Northern Wei. Third, the Northern Wei's application of the Chiu-p'in Kuan-je^n-fa was observed. The Northern Wei dynasty, being not well acquainted with contemporary Han people, carried out the Chiu-p'in kuan-je^n-fa from the necessity of administration. The initiative for this organization, of course, was up to Northern Wei dynasty, however the appointed people as chung-jeong were mainly Han lineages and the appointment was handed down to their posterity in succession. Now it is supposed that the Chiu-p'in kuan-je^n-fa played an important role in the extension and the preservation of the power of Han lineages. Fourth, the influence which main Northern powerful groups gave upon the Han lineages was observed. The Han lineages could be superior to Northern lineages by virtue of assimilaty policy toward Han. But the Northern Wei lineages, who were appointed mainly as military officials, disclosed their dissatisfactions and threatened the Han lineages by raising disturbances. Fifth, the characteristics of Han lineages were observed. For the charateristics of Wei-chin nan-pei-chao lineages, there are two theories: First, the theory that considers the lineages to be super-periodical, super-dynastical, and self-controlling as they depended upon not a dynasty's assurance but an elites' prevaling views, that is, local parties' assurance. Second, the theory that considers the lineages as parasite official qroup who depended upon dynastic authoritative power, connecting it genealogically with the parasite bureaucracy of later Han dynasty, and denying it for a historical pecularity. Of course the local parties' personal criticism had much influence on chung-jeong's local grading for a person. And the local grading was just reflected to governmental official grading. As the application of Chiu-p'in Kuan-je^n-fa advanced, in the grading the lineage itself had the primacy. Though it is said that the lineage was self-controlling class not depending upon the governmental authoritative power, in fact, due to the government's final decision for the appointment of the officials, it was necessary for the government and the local parties to make a sort of comprise between them. In view that the lineage, though having self-controlling characteristics in appearance, made much efforts in order to preserve their power among the monarchs and the mighty groups with military force, the peculiar relation between the lineage and the dynasty is seen. Now it is supposed that the lineage had above mentioned two phases. The Han lineages in Northern Wei dynasty period existed on the ground of aboriginal power, hence differing their nature from southern dynasties, and taking pride in the lineage itself though being in collusion with Northern Wei dynasty. In short, through above mentioned approaches - the situation of Han lineages in the early Northern Wei dynasty period, the Northern Wei's assimilatory policy toward china and Han lineages' adaptation to Northern Wei, the application of the Chiu-p'in Kuan-je^n-fa, the influence of main Northern powerful groups - the characterics of Han lineage in Northern Wei dynasty era were studied. Now, it is supposed that though being in collusion with Northern Wei dynasty in order to preserve their power, the Han lineage never lost their pride and did not surrender entirely to Northern Wei dynasty.
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