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義和團運動의 性格에 대한 考察
- 義和團運動의 性格에 대한 考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study of I-Ho tuan movement's character
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사학과
- 의화단운동; 부청멸양; 초무량면정책
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- I-ho T'uan movement(;Righteous harmony fistsmovement) in 1900 is the public movement that at the end of 19C and happened in the course of reinforcement of capitalistic nations, which were entering the phase of imperialism, in the political, economical disseisin and the partition of territories to China.
By the way, as for this movement, there have been two different opinions in accordance with the traditional point of views in the studies of scholars: One is the negative estimation that it was a blind anti-foreign movement by the Boxers, and the other is the positive one that it was an anti-imperialistic and patriotic movement by the publics who were trying to defense their nation.
In this manuscript through these following three subjects, I tried to examine that I-ho T'uan movement was a public antiimperialistic and patriotic movement by the publics, while they had beeh facing with national crisis, as it were imperialistic great powers' aggression of China.
The first, in research into the process of I-ho T'uan's formation, the process how I-ho T'uan, which was a provincial selfdefense organization before, became to step forward the antiimperialistic movement is examined.
Before the establishment of Christian churches in the Hsienfeng, T'uang-chih dynasty, I-ho T'uan was an Tluan-lien(;Village militia units), that is a provincial self-defense organization for the purpose of protection of persons and properties, and from the thieves too.
Meanwhile at that time, as the village peoples had often brought about anti-tax movements by taking advantage of an authorized mean, T'uan-lien, they had been called t'uan fei, hei fei in distinction from Min-t'uan)(;peoples' militia) which was organized with direction of the gentry and the landload;
Shortly before I-ho T'uan movement was broken out, judging from the fact that in northern Shantung over eighty percent village people were poor independent farmers, It can be realized that the main body of t'uan fei who had brought about anti-tax movement were poor independent farmers. And just then after Sino-Japanese War the frequent frictions between the Christian power which was an advance detachment for imperialistic aggression and the peasantry during the reinforcement of economical disseisin by the imperialistic great powers to China had encouraged the publics of t'uan fei who were developing the anti-tax movement against Mandarin and the Ch'ing dynasty to step forward the anti-imperialistic Roman Catholc movement.
Finally the anti-imperialism movement by the public of I-ho T'uan against reinforcements of imperialistic aggression was begun.
The second, in research into the developing process of I-ho T'uan movement, through the slogan of 'Upholding the Ch'ing and exterminating the foreigners', that was claimed by the publics, a patriotic aspect of publics of Righteous harmony fists who were trying to defense China and save their chinese nation in such a national crisis is examined. The slogan of 'Upholding the Ch'ing and exterminating the foreigners', was claimed around 1898 when the imperialistic Great Powers mostly rushed about for the partitions of chinese territories and assignments of their sphere of influences. This slogan from the patriotic point of view for defending their nation and peoples placed the focus on exterminating the foreigners and 'Upholding the Ch'ing' doesn't mean the assistance to the Ch'ing dynasty of the Manchurian Government but 'saving our nation and our people.' In this meaning the patriotic spirit of the publics of Righteous harmony fists who were exerting themselves in order to save their nation from the imperialistic Great Powers may be revealed. The third, in research into the attitude of chinese government in their variational process of countermeasures control against I-ho T'uan, at that time in such a national crisis who the main body aiming at the anti-imperialistic patriotism, that was in deed a historical problem was, is examined. The Chinese government had resorted against I-ho T'uan inconstant temporary expedients, such as assimilation with T'uanlien, oppression, combination, and suppression. In was because, under that circumstance of imperialistic aggression, the chinese government could not put herself in patriotism and nationalism saving their country, but only because she had been absorbed in the maintenance of her feudal domination system. These attitudes of Chinese government conversely have proved the fact that who had clung to the anti-imperialistic patriotism and accomplished it to the last under thar situation and crisis were only the publics who had participated in I-ho T'uan movement. Through the researches of above mentioned three subjects, for instance, the formation process of I-ho T'uan, bringing the slogan, 'Upholding the Ch'ing and exterminating foreigners' according to the development of I-ho T'uan movement and the variational process of countermeasure control by Chinese government according to the expansion of I-ho T'uan movement, we can realiie that I-ho T'uan movement was an anti-imperialistic and patriotic movement by the publics while they had been facing with the national crisis of the imperialistic Great Powers' aggression to China at that time.;義和團運動은 19世紀 末 帝國主義段階로 들어간 列强의 中國에 대한 政治的 經濟的 侵奪 및 領土分割이 강화되는 가운데 발생한 民衆運動이다. 그런데 이 運動에 관하여는 종래 學者들의 學問的 立場에 따라 暴徒에 의한 盲目的인 排外運動이었다는 否定的인 평가와 나라를 지키려는 民衆의 反帝愛國運動이었다는 肯定的인 평가의 상반된 견해가 있어 왔다. 本稿에서는 다음의 세가지 문제를 통하여 義和團運動의 性格을 考察하고자 하였다. 첫째, 義和團의 形成過程을 통하여 鄕村自衛組織이었던 義和團이 反帝的인 仇敎運動으로 나서게된 과정을 살펴보았다. 義和團은 咸豊·同治年間 敎會가 세워지기 이전 "保衛身家" "防禦盜賊" "守望相助"를 目的으로 하는 鄕村自衛組織인 團練이었다. 그런데 당시 鄕民은 團練이라는 合法的인 수단을 이용하여 빈번히 抗糧運動을 展開하였으므로, 이들은 鄕紳地主의 지도로 組織되는 "民團" "官團"과는 구별하여 "團匪" "黑團"등으로 불리었다. 義和團運動 發生 직전 山東北部의 8割이상의 鄕民이 貧窮自作農이었던 것으로 보아 抗糧運動을 일으킨 團匪의 主體勢力은 이들 貧窮自作農民이었음을 알 수 있다. 그런데 淸日戰爭以後 帝國主義 列强의 經濟的 侵略이 강화되는 상황속에서 帝國主義 勢力의 첨병인 기독교세력과 農民大衆의 빈번한 충돌은 反官·反淸의 抗糧運動을 展開하던 團匪의 民衆을 反帝的 仇敎運動에 나서게하는 계기가 되었다. 결국 帝國主義 侵略의 强化에 대항하여 義和團民衆의 反帝運動이 시작되었던 것이다. 둘째, 義和團運動의 展開過程속에서 民衆이 제기한 "扶淸滅洋"의 슬로건을 통하여 義和團運動의 性格을 살펴보았다. "扶淸滅洋" 슬로건은 帝國主義 列强의 中國에 대한 領土分割·勢力範圍設定·各種利權爭奪등이 절정에 달하였던 1898년경 제기되었다. 이는 "洋鬼子"로부터 나라와 民族을 구하자는 愛國的 견지에서 "滅洋"에 초점을 둔 슬로건이었다. 그리고 "扶淸"이란 滿洲族의 征服王朝인 淸朝를 돕는다는 의미가 아니라 "우리나라·우리민족을 구한다"는 의미를 지닌 것으로 추론할 수 있다. 여기서 帝國主義 列强으로부터 나라를 구하려는 義和團民衆의 愛國的 정신을 엿볼 수 있다. 셋째, 義和團에 대한 淸廷의 對策變化過程에 나타난 淸廷의 태도를 통하여 당시의 國家的 民族的 危機속에서 진실로 역사적 과제인 反帝愛國을 지향한 주체는 누구였는가를 살펴보았다. 淸廷은 義和團에 대하여 團練化·彈壓·聯合·鎭壓이라는 시종 일관되지 않은 임기웅변적인 정책을 취하였다. 이는 帝國主義의 侵略이라는 상황속에서 淸廷이 나라를 구하려는 愛國愛族的 立場에 서지 못하고 다만 자신의 封建的 支配體制를 유지하기에 급급하였기 때문이었다. 이러한 사실은 역으로 당시의 위기속에서 反帝愛國的 立場을 고수하고 끝까지 추진시켜 나간 것은 오로지 義和團運動에 참여한 民衆뿐이었다는 것을 말해준다. 이와같은 義和團의 形成過程, 義和團運動 展開에 따른 "扶淸滅洋"의 슬로건 제기, 運動의 擴大·發展에 따른 淸廷의 對策變化過程등 세가지 문제를 통하여, 義和團運動은 帝國主義 列强의 中國侵略이라는 당시의 國家的·民族的 危機에 처하여 이에 대응한 民衆의 反帝愛國運動이었음을 이해할 수 있다.
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