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槿友會理念小考

Title
槿友會理念小考
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Ideological Nature of Keun Woo Hoi
Authors
玄貞恩.
Issue Date
1978
Department/Major
대학원 사회학과
Keywords
근우회이념사회학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
最近 韓國안에서도 女性問題가 많이 論議되어 왔고 또 U.N에서도 실질적인 女性의 모든 問題를 理解하고 解決하고자 國際女性의 해를 선포하기도 했다. 國內外로 女性의 問題가 政策立案者나 知識人, 學者들의 觀心對象이 되어가고 있다. 女性問題를 現實的인 次元에서 정확하게 이해하고 또 바람직하게 解決하기 위해서도 女性問題를 全體的으로 把握할 必要가 있다. 全體的으로 把握함에 있어서 現在 女性團體活動을 共時的으로 把握하는 길과 過去의 女性運動을 通時的으로 파악하는 길이 있다. 本 論文에서는 비록 이러한 全體的 女性問題把握을 시도하지 못했으나 韓國女性運動에 있어서 획기적인 위치를 차지하는 槿友會의 理念을 주로 밝혀보고자 한다. 女性運動은 民族과 社會가 처한 여건에 따라 그 展開方向과 그 內容이 달라지는데, 韓國의 女性運動이 日帝下의 植民地的인 時代的 狀況에 어떻게 부합되어 성장하고 變化해 왔는지, 또 女性들의 意識이 어떤 형태로 理念化되었는지, 특히 社會主義的 理念을 어떻게 받아들이고 그것을 具現했는지를 槿友會를 中心으로 하여 밝히고자 했다. 이러한 理念的 性格을 보다 종합적으로 파악하기 위해 槿友會가 형성된 1920年代의 政治, 社會의 全般的 狀況과 共産主義의 대두 및 新幹會와의 연관성 등을 관찰한 후에 槿友會의 組織과 그 活動形態, 특히 理念의 性格과 그 변천을 고찰하였다. 특히 槿友會의 理念을 잘 反映해주는 日帝時代의 新聞, 雜誌의 文獻資料들을 參照하였다. 1920年代 소위 新女性들은 敎育, 啓蒙運動, 文化運動, 물산장려운동, 信仰運動등 다양한 運動을 활발히 展開하였다. 女性敎育이 全國的으로 보급되어 女性의 社會意識을 깨우쳤으며, 많은 女性들이 社會로 進出하였다. 그런데 1920年代에 社會主義思想이 흘러들어옴에 따라 民族運動이 한때는 흥왕되는 것 같았으나 차츰 內部的으로 分裂되기 시작 하였다. 女性運動도 左, 右翼으로 나뉘게 되었으며 左翼內部에서도 분파와 派爭이 치열하였다. 그러자 이같은 對內的 分裂을 극복하고 하나의 女性運動으로 統合시키고자 하는 問題가 대두되었다. 마침 그 즈음에 新幹會가 組織되었다. 여기에 힘입어 1927年 5月 비로소 傳遞 韓國女性運動體로서의 槿友會를 결성하게 되었다. 그런데 初期의 社會主義는 民族解放運動의 전략으로 대두되었으므로 左, 右翼이 共同으로 民族의 獨立을 위해 努力하는 현상이 생길 수 있었다. 그러나 槿友會 組織後 1年이 지나자 점차 分裂되기 시작하여 1930年에 와서는 左右의 對立과 反目이 表面化되었다. 이때 左派의 理念과 立場은 더욱 선명해지고 그들의 行動은 더욱 具體的이 되었다. 이는 코민테른의 政策變更에도 기인한다. 코민케른은 1929年의 經濟恐慌으로 混亂한 틈을 타 各國의 民族主義勢力을 共産主義集團으로 변질시키려 하였다. 左翼女性들도 여기에 영향을 받아 점점 共産主義思想에 接近해 갔으며 民族鬪爭보다 階級鬪爭이 우선되어야 한다고 주장하였고 勞動者, 農民階層을 기반으로 한 프롤레타리아革命을 부르짖었다. 그리하여 左翼側 女性들은 能業, 취업거부 등 매우 과격한 運動을 벌여쓰며 右派를 小부르죠아層이라고 지적하며 正面으로 도전하였다. 本 論文에서는 槿友會 초창기부터 나타나는 社會主義的 理念을 부각시키려 하였다. 槿友會가 內部로부터 分裂되기 시작하면서 社會主義的 理念의 性格이 더욱 뚜렷해지는 경향을 당시의 자료를 통해 명백하게 포착하려고 하였다. 적지않은 槿友會에 대한 從來의 硏究가 槿友會의 社會主義的 경향만을 지적했으나 本 論文에서는 그와같은 社會主義的 理念을 선명히 부각시키려 하였다. 本 論文은 社會學的 理念에 立脚하여 論文演繹的으로 槿友會活動을 說明했어야 하지만 여러 가지 資料의 限界 때문에 부득이 敍述的인 次元에서 머물러 버렸다. 이 점이 本 論文의 限界임을 밝힌다.;Today one of the much talked about topics in the world is the women's problem and Korea is by all means no exception. The United Nations, recognizing the current problems of women, proclaimed the "International Women's Year". The women's problem therefore became the very subject of interests among policy makers, intellectuals, and scholars throughout the world. In order to have accurate understanding of the problems and attain desirable solutions, it is necessary to look into the women's problem as a whole from realistic point of view. There are two ways to grasp problems : One through studying activities of women's organizations at present, and the other through the feminist movement in the past. Instead of attempting to take up the women's problem in general this thesis is designed to mainly thraw light upon the ideology of Keun Woo Hoi, a distinctive landmark of Korean feminist movement. There are some notable variations in the ways and methods to develop the feminist movement owing to different historical traditions and social customs among other factors. This article, dealing with Keun Woo Hoi, is directed to explain how the growth and changes have taken place in the Korean feminist movement during the Japanese Colonia ruling, and how awareness of women has developed into socialistic concept and particularly how socialistic doctrines have been embodied by women. Because of my aim to have more comprehensive picture of the ideology of Keun Woo Hoi, my study was not limited to the organization and activities of Keun Woo Hoi, but was carried on to it's socialistic idea and changes. My study covered politico-social conditions of 1920's during which Keun Woo Hoi was established and the rise of Communism as well as the relationship with Shin Ken Hoi were also included in my survey. Among other literature newspapers and journals, published during the Japanese dominion, furnished me with much helpful information on the ideology of Keun Woo Hoi. So called the modern women of 1920's were very active in ditersified movements such as education, enlightenment movement, cultural movement, local product encouragement movement, and religious movement. It was at this time that education of Women had widely spread and women began to cultivate social awareness, and as a result considerable number of women have gone out to perform useful social functions. In 1920's influx of socialism seemed to have made the national movement flurish for a while only to bring forth ideological division in itself. Meanwhile dissension also arose between left and right wings in the feminist movement, and the left wing suffered factional divisions and strifes. Consequently to unite feminist movements into one movement became inevitable issue to those concerned and they, encouraged by the formation of Shin Kan Hoi, in May 1927 have at last succeeded in creating Keun Woo Hoi, an organization of Korean women's movement. It was quite possible for both left and right wings to manifest joint efforts to achieve national independence, because at the beginning socialism was accepted as means to promote national liberation movement. On the contrary a year after the formation of Keun Woo Hoi started to split up and in the year of 1930 conflict and hostility between left and right were obvious. Leftist doctrines were made clearer and the Commintern assuming the role of the directing center of the national Communist parties tried to consolidate Communist power all ever the world, taking advantage of the confusion caused by the 1920's economic panic. Influenced by the Communist doctrines female leftists claimed that class war takes precedence of struggle for nationalism and advocated "wordly revolution of proletariat" formed by the class of workers and farmers. The means of political struggle advanced by them included strikes and rejection of work and they openly attacked and called the right wing "petite bourgeoisie." Concentrating my efforts on, bringing out the ideology of socialism which had appeared from the beginning of Keun Woo Hoi, I tried to have a clear grasp of trend in which main characteristics of socialistic ideology became distinctive. Since a great number of studies on Keun Woo Hoi, conducted in the past, were practically all on the socialistic attitude of Keun Woo Hoi, I therefore put my effort to clarify the idea of socialism. Due to the lack of reference materials I was limited to explain in details the activities of Keun Woo Hoi based on sociological concept.
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