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中共女性의 役割과 地位變化에 관한 연구

Title
中共女性의 役割과 地位變化에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on Changes in Role and Status of Chinese Women
Authors
李正子
Issue Date
1980
Department/Major
대학원 사회학과
Keywords
중공여성역할지위변화
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
世界女性의 25%라는 巨大한 女性人口를 지니고 있으며 二千여년동안 男尊女卑의 儒敎倫理가 支配해온 中華人民共和國은 現在 社會主義를 표방하는 中國共産黨이 統治하고 있다. 中共政府에 의해 社會主義化를 위한 法的·制度的 대변혁을 겪은 中共女性의 生活과 地位는 男女平等權이라는 관점에서 自由진영 女性運動의 關心을 끌고 있다. ① 中國은 社會主義 理念대로 平等社會가 確立되었는가 ② 女性의 地位와 役割은 男性과 同等해졌는가 ③ 中共의 法과 制度는 男女의 人間化에 근거하고 있는가 ④ 中共의 政治·社會制度는 女性解放과 어떤 關連을 갖고 있는가 등의 질문에 해답을 찾아보고자 中共社會의 변천과 女性의 地位와 役割을 一考했다. 社會主義者들은 男女差別이 私有財産을 인정하는 經濟構造와 一夫一妻制의 家族制度에서 비롯되기 때문에 이를 社會主義경제구조와 集團生活에 의하여 資本主義의 家父長的 폐단을 없애야 비로소 男女 不平等이 없어진다고 주장해왔다. 中共도 無産階級革命을 통하여 社會主義社會가 建設되면 女性解放도 自然히 이루어진다는 對女性觀아래 人口의 半인 女性의 勞動力을 生産노동력화하는데 力點을 두었다. 이들의 急先務는 二千여년의 封建的儒敎思想과 家父長的 家族制度, 結婚制度의 속박으로부터 女性을 脫出시키는 일이었다. 이를 위한 첫 번째 조치가 女性에게 經濟的 權利를 부여한 1947년 土地改革法이었다. 여성들이 가족토지를 分割 소유하고 매매권을 갖게되어 남편에의 경제적 예속성이 약화 되었다. 家父長的 가족질서와 封建的 社會秩序가 크게 흔들렸고 女性의 發言權이 강하게 되었다. 두 번째 조치는 1950년의 結婚法公布였다. 自由結婚과 自由離婚을 인정하고 身代金制를 금지하는 등 본건결혼제도의 폐지를 목적했다. 여성에게 자유로운 노동참가를 허용하고 男性에게 子女양육의무와 無能力 아내에 對한 離婚後의 부양의무를 지워 여성에 대한 학대를 방지했다. 平等社會를 위한 몇가지 法的 조치를 實質的 제도로써 뒷받침한 것이 1958年의 人民公社運動이었다. 約 二千戶를 기반으로 한 農村協同體인 人民公社는 農·工·商 學·兵 部門을 自治的으로 운영하며 自律的 再生産構造를 갖는다. 대규모의 協同·生活集團化의 슬로건 아래 共同식당을 설치하여 女性을 개별적인 부엌일로부터 자유롭게 했다. 부엌일은 集團化됨으로써 賃金勞動分野로 되었다. 共同食堂을 中心으로 세탁소, 유아원, 봉재소, 탁아소, 양노원 등 社會施設을 운영하여 70%의 어린이는 이 시설을 利用하고 公社 人口의 80%는 共同食堂을 利用했다. 家事와 子女養育의 共同化로 개별 농촌가정 형태에서 대변화가 일어났으며 女性에게는 經濟活動에 참여할 여건이 마련되어 女性의 노동참여는 강철생산, 트랙터 운전에까지 확대되었다. 作業點數制에 의해 賃金이 男女 個個人에게 支拂되어 家庭에 對한 女性의 經濟的 기여도가 현저하게 들어났다. 人民公社運動으로 家庭과 女性役割의 의미가 바뀌었고 家族構成員과의 관계가 대등하게 變했다. 女性은 能力別 分配原則을 경험했으며 夜間學習班에 참가하여 社會的인식을 높이는 등 새로운 經驗을 많이 하게됐다. 女性으로부터 傳統的 思考를 불식하고 社會主義에 對한 愛着과 革命的 과업에 매진할 意慾을 일깨워 女性을 公的生活과 生産勞動에 참여시키기 위해서는 黨은 女性간부 訓練을 積極 失恃하고 女性團體로 하여금 黨政策의 실천운동, 社會主義思想과 技術습득을 위한 夜間 學習 硏究모임을 운영하게 하며 여성대중을 끌어나가도록 財政的, 行政的 支援을 했다. 女性團體의 과제는 黨委員會에서 채택되고 있으며 정부기구에는 高位職女性의 수가 늘어나고 있다. 女性政策은 경제정책과 黨路線鬪爭에 따라 변했으며 批林批孔運動에서 女性問題는 政治爭點의 中心이 되었고 黨은 儒敎思想의 被害階級인 女性을 路線鬪爭의 推進勢力으로 一線에 내세웠다. 女性의 解放意識과 政治意識은 이 時期에 急激한 發展을 했다. 男女가 平等하게 生産活動에 참여할수있도록 社會的 與件은 西歐社會에 비하여 잘 마련되어 있으나 性格的으로는 그 여건이 女性의 해방과 人間化를 목적한 것이라기보다 社會開發을 위한 女性의 동원을 가능케하기 위하여 造成된 환경인 것이다. 그러나 이 환경도 여성을 가정적 역할로부터 탈피시킬 수 있을만큼 완전하지 못하여 여성은 가정적 役割과 社會的 生産役의 二重고통을 받고있는 형편이다. 따라서 女性의 社會的역할과 地位는 男性과 同等해질수가 없게 되어있다. 現 中共정권이 女性에게 要求하는 女性像은 위대한 革命세력으로서의 女性, 無産계급 革命을 달성하기 위해 사회적 생산노동에 적극 참여하는 女性, 생산투쟁, 계급투쟁, 과학기술투쟁의 3대 革命에 우선 成果를 올리는 女性이다. 그러나 女性이 傳統的 女性役割로부터 自由로운 가운데 自意的으로 社會活動에 참가할 수 있도록 社會的 環境이 造成되고 女性自身의 生活이 人生의 目標가 될 수 있을 때 여성의 해방이 있을 수 있다고 본다면 中共女性은 사회주의 사회건설이라는 우선순위에 中共女性의 生活이 묶이는 한 女性解放과 人間化에의 길은 아직도 멀다. 그러나 社會主義社會의 制度와 장치들이 自由民主진영에서 女性의 人間化를 目的으로 도입될 때 여성해방은 상당히 可能할 것으로 分析된다.;People's Republic of China which holds a great feminine population of 25% of the whole world, and which has been ruled by the male-superiority Confucian ideology for the past 20 centuries, is now controlled by the chinese Communist Party. The status and living of the Chinese women through the process of legal and institutional changes which were initiated by the socialist Chinese government has been the target of keen attention to feminists of the free world in regard to an equal rights of both sexes. This research work is a study on changes of the Chinese society and women's living to find answers to the following questions : 1) Has China realized an equal society for both sexes as has been widely publicized by the socialist ideology? 2) Do the Chinese women have equal status and role with the Chinese men? 3) Is the Chinese law and institution based on humanitarian grounds? 4) What relationships are there between the political and social institution of China and the feminist movement there? The socialists have claimed sexual discrimination originated from the economic structure of private property and monogamy. They claimed socialist economic structure and community life will be able to eradicate evils of the patriarchal capitalism and will realize male-female equality. Communist China has emphasized the policy to turn the women labor force into productive menpower, with a viewpoint that the realization of a socialist society through proletariat revolution will naturally accompany emancipation of women. most urgent task was to break women from the bondage of 2,000year old tradition of feudalistic Confucian thoughts and the patriarchal family system and marriage tradition. The first measure was the Land Reform Law of 1947 which endowed with economic rights. Women could share, own, sell or purchase land property by this law and so they became less dependent on their husbands. This was a strong blow to the patriarchal family structure and social orders. Women had louder voices. The second measure was the promulgation of the Marriage Law in 1950. Free marriage and free divorce was acknowledged by the law and feudal marriage customs of dowry was prohibited. This law allowed women right to work on their will and obligated husbands to support children and financially uncapable wives after the divorce. The Commune Movement in 1958 was to support with practical institutions several legal measures which had been taken for an equal. society. A commune, a rural cooperative community based on about 2,000 households, operates autonomous agricultural, industrial, commercial, educational and military system and has a structure for re-production. Under the slogan of collectivization of living and full cooperation, they installed community kitchen by which women were liberated from individual kitchen works. Cooking became part of collective work and belonged to wagepaying labor work. Laundry, baby care center, sewing center, day care center, home for the old were also run around the kitchens. About 70% of children at the commune were put in these welfare facilities and about 80% of the commune people used the common kitchen. Shared housekeeping work and child care has brought great changes to the form of individual rural family life. Women could participate in economic activities and their work expanded even to such works as steel production and tractor handling. Wages were paid by work performance to each workers and so women's financial contribution to household economy enhanced remarkably. The Commune Movement has changed the meaning of home and man-wife roles and relationship among family members became rather equal. Women experienced the principle of ability-based distribution. They also had various new experiences such as evening classes where they expanded their understanding of the society. The Communist Party actively carried out training for women officials to give incentive to admire socialism and to devote themselves to revolutionary tasks, discarding the traditional ideology, so that they participate in public life and productive labor. The party also had women organizations to initiate party policy practice movements and to run evening study classes to learn socialist ideology and technology. It offered financial and administrative support to the organizations so that they could lead grassroot women. Goals of women organizations are taken by the party committee and more women now advance to ranking government positions. Consequently women policy changed in accordance with the economic policies and political struggles. Women problem was the main issue at the "Pi-Lin-Pi-Kong" movement, and the party put women on the front to lead the fight because they were the damaged class by the Confucian thoughts. Awareness of women of their political and individual rights has made great progress at this period. There were favorable social conditions for equal participation of both men and women in productive activities. But it was not designed for emancipation and humanization of women but it was to mobilize women for the social development. And it was still insufficient to liberate completely from their housekeeping roles, and so they suffer two-fold burden of household role and social duty. This means women cannot achieve equal status and social role with men. If true liberation of women comes when women can be free from traditional feminine roles and can choose social activities on their own will and can have their own life as their goal, Chinese women still remain far from true women's liberation and humanization because of the socialist goal of establishing a socialist society. However, systems and institutions of the socialist society could be very helpful in the free democratic world when they are introduced for the humanization and liberation of women.
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