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家族制度의 變化에 따른 Personality 硏究

Title
家族制度의 變化에 따른 Personality 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Personality and the Acculturation of Family
Authors
申鉉福
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
대학원 사회학과
Keywords
가족제도personality사회학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
家族은 社會內에서 作用하는 集團이므로 社會體制와 文化가 變함에 따라서 家族體制도 變型되기 마련이다. 우리나라도 解放과 더불어 西洋文化의 導入과 急速한 都市化 및 工業化가 이루어 지면서 傳統的인 諸制度의 變化와 함께 家族制度의 變化를 가져왔다. 家族制度의 變化란 다시말해서 傳統的인 擴大家族에서 核家族化現象을 말하며 이와 같은 變化는 단순한 制度上의 變化만이 아니라 家族의 構成員, 家族內의 人間關係, 또는 生活樣相의 變化임을 알 수 있다. 따라서 家族制度의 變化는 個人의 Personality 形成過程에도 큰 影響을 미치는 것으로서, 傳統家族과 核家族에서의 Personality는 다음과 같이 다르게 나타난다. 1. 傳統家族에서의 Personality 傳統家族에서는 年齡, 性, 世代에 따른 權利와 義務가 嚴格히 부여되었기 때문에 個人은 일찍부터 자신의 地位와 役割을 內面化시킬 수 있었다. 그러나 지나친 孝의 重視와 家族主義的槪念의 影響으로 因해서, 獨立的인 人間이 되지 못하고 自律的인 思考와 行動이 缺如된 性格으로 形成되는 傾向이 많았다. 따라서 個人은 家長의 命令에 절대적 服從함으로서 모든것을 處理했기 때문에 個人의 포부나 獨創力등이 發展되지 못하고 成人이 되어서도 自己의 主張이나 感情을 抑制하고 他人의 耳目만을 重要視하게 되었던 것이다. 結局 個人은 자신의 판단이나 能力에 依해서 生活을 해 나갔다기 보다는 家族主義的 思考方式에 依해서 자신을 適應시키는 生活을 하였다. 2. 現代核家族에서의 Personality 核家族에서의 子女養育은 擴大家族과 比較할 때 親族과의 接觸은 적어지고 父母에 依해서만 되어지는 것이므로 子女에 대한 父母의 態度는 더욱 重要하다. 그러나 母乳가 人工乳로 代置되고 離乳時期가 빨라짐으로서 幼兒는 어머니의 강한 愛情을 피부로 느낄 수 없으며 父母와 같이 있는 時間이 짧아짐으로서 傳統家族에서와 같이 父母의 役割을 쉽게 보고 익힐수 없게 된다. 子女에 대한 父母의 지나친 期待는 어렸을 때부터 競爭心을 유발시키는 한편 過剩保護의 結果가 되어 子女의 依存心을 낳게 한다. 또 이러한 依存心은 學校와 社會의 對人關係에서 不適應現象으로 나타나는 경우가 많다. 또 子女가 자랄수록 父母-子女間에 文化지체(cultural-lag)에 의한 不一致 現象이 문제가 되고 있다. 傳統的인 價値觀을 重要視하는 父母의 態度와 個人主義的 思考方式을 志向하는 子女의 態度差異에 오는 갈등은 긴장된 關係를 가져오며 때로는 子女의 家出이나 犯罪行爲로 나타나는데 까지 이르고 있다. 本 硏究에서 볼때, 家族制度의 變化에 따른 核家族 形態는 機能的인 面에서는 現代 産業 社會에 적합한 形態로 考慮되고 있으나 家族內의 人間關係나 Personality 形成過程에서 볼때는 急激한 文化의 變化에 따른 많은 不安定性을 內包한다는 것과 이에 따른 Personality 解體現象이 家族問題로 表面化될 可能性도 많다는 것을 알수 있다.;A Study on the Personality and the Acculturation of Family Since the family is a group functions in the society, the family culture is also transformed as the social system or culture changes. After the liberation from Japan, the transmission of Western culture and the rapid urbanization and industrialization accompanied the change in the family as well as in various traditional institutions. This change in the family means the change from the large family to a nuclear one, a change not only in its structure simply but in its function or living patterns. Such an acculturation of family greatly influences the process of personality formation. The personality, in the traditional family differs from that of nuclear family as the followings. 1. Personality in the traditional family In the traditional family structure there were strict rights and duties imposed on the individual according to his age, sex, and generation. In his structure one could easily internalize his role from his early age. However, the over-devotion to the parents and the familism tend to produce somewhat dependent individuals who lack autonomous personality both in their thought and action. Everything was decided through submission to the patriarch that there could not be the development of ambition, ability, and creativity of the individual, and in his adulthood he suppressed his own claims or feelings while taking other's attention seriously. Accordingly, the individual led his life not by his own judgment or decision but by fitting himself to he familistic way of thinking. 2. Personality in the Nuclear Family The child education in e nuclear family is carried out only by the parents, disconnected from of relatives; so the parent's attitude toward the child is more important. In the nuclear family, however, mother's milk is substituted by an artificial one, and the weaning period quickened. As the result, the baby does not fully or strongly receive love from his mother, and he spends with his parents only a short time, which brings him confusion in identifying himself with his parents. Also, the over-expectation by the parents leads the child to competition with others from his early childhood; tine over-protection results in his dependence on parents. This may be shown as an inadjustment in personnel relationships in school and society As the child grows up, here is to be cultural inconsistency by cultural lag in parent-child relationship. The conflict between the parents who keep the traditional value system and the child who follows the individualistic mode of thinking brings tension. Often this conflict is expressed by the child's leaving his house or juvenile delincuency. The nuclear family, as shown above, produced by family acculturation, can be considered as an adeouate pattern for modern industrial society in its function. The rapid cultural change however, can also include much uneasiness and the conseouent disorientation of personality in human relationships within the family or in the process of personality formation.
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