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人口移動을 通한 우리나라의 都市化過程

人口移動을 通한 우리나라의 都市化過程
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(A) study of urbanization process in Korea in terms population migration
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대학원 사회학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The advent of Industrial Revolution has brought about the transformation of a nation's industralism from the state of self-sufficiency in the past, relied upon farming, to a functionally specialized one based on industry, comerce and management, which require close inter-relations among them. An urban community basically different from urual area coming into being, inundating rural population flock to the city with the result that a urbanization takes place. A rise in population in a city is accounted for by the mass exodus of rural people to a city. This urbanity in the stage of economic development entails industralization. The urbanization in terms of population becomes a yardstick for economic growth and reveals the difference in nature between a city and rural area. The more the population increase in a community, the more obviously a community becomes urbanized. As a result, there is a relatively regular and conspicuous disparity between a urban community and rural area. Cursory observation on the characteristics of a modernized city in terms of population divulges the following findings : 1) urban population is high in proportion to rural people (city people is larger compared with the whole population). 2) the proportion of men vs women is wide. 3) the difference in age is big. 4) economic system based on second and service industry. 5) low vital rates; the rate of birth and mortality is low in comparison with rural area. Viewed from this point, the process of Korea urbanization is likened to those of the advanced nations. In the first place, while the advanced nations have been urbanized, in the main, from the 19 century and now reaches to a considerable level, Korea has begun to show an interest in urbanization since 1920. Secondly, the speed of urbanization irn the developed countries has been slow and steady in the interval of lengthy period. But the velocity of urbanization in Korea has been too headlong. Thirdly, the abnormal mushrooming of primate cities is characterized by the sudden drift of rural population to a urban community. Therefore, taking into account the relationship between the agumentation of population and the industrialization, the urbanization in Korea attributes not so much to the second industry bringing about an increase in employment as to the service industry capitalizing on manual labor only so as to make many people unemployed. In this connection, the problem of relationship between multifying population and the urbanization consists not in the economic system that meets the demand of rural people gathering to a city, but in the large emigrated country people. In other words, "pulling" elements rather than `pushing" elements play an important role in inducing rural population from the country. These problems are different from those of developed countries socially, economically and politically. So, the urbanization in Korea is accounted for by a Pseudo-urbanization causing the proliferation of primate cities. The whole city (except the heart of a city) has rustic characteristics and colors.
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