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大都市의 經濟構造變化에 對한 地理學的 硏究

Title
大都市의 經濟構造變化에 對한 地理學的 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Geographical Study on the Change of Economic Structure of Metropolitan Area : in Seoul and Pusan
Authors
徐賢淑.
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
대학원 사회생활학과
Keywords
대도시경제구조변화지리학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
經濟基盤槪念에 立脚하여 우리나라 大都市인 서울과 釜山을 對象으로 人口增加와 B/N比率이 어떠한 相關關係를 갖고 있으며 서울과 釜山은 60年代를 通해 經濟構造가 어떻게 變化되었는가를 考察하고져 하였다. 經濟基盤理論은 都市의 經濟를 二元的으로 分析하는 것을 말한다. 즉 都市의 經濟活動을 移出活動과 內部活動으로 나누어, 移出活動이 都市의 存續發展을 가능케한다고 보아 이를 基盤活動 및 基盤經濟機能으로 보고, 또한 都市자체의 住民을 위해 종사하는 活動 즉 內部活動을 非基盤活動 및 非基盤經濟機能으로 보는 것이다. 이 槪念은 F.L.Olmstedd(1921年)에 依해 처음 등장되었고, 그 後 H. Hoyt의 數學的 方法에 의한 해석을 거쳐 최근 R.B.Andrews에 依해 理論의 體系化가 成立되었다. 그리하여 1930年以后부터 都市의 經濟를 分析하는데 有用한 方法으로 使用되어 왔다. 本 硏究는 이 理論의 여러 分析方法中 H.Hoyt에 依해 開發된 An Approximation Method를 通하여 서울과 釜山의 基盤活動을 分類 分析하고 이 基盤活動에 依해 大都市 內部의 經濟構造 變化를 考察해 보았다. 그 結果 ①大都市에 있어서 人口가 增加함에 따라 非基盤比率이 增加한다. ②우리나라 大都市에서 經濟成長을 主導하는 基盤活動은 소매업, 금속제품, 건설업, 운수 및 통신업, 개인서비스업 등이 主軸을 이룬다. 서울은 基盤活動이 多樣하여 複合的인 機能을 나타내며, 釜山은 소매업과 제조업部門이 基盤活動의 中心을 이루고 있어 工業 機能이 强하다. ③60年代의 우리나라 大都市의 經濟構造 變化는 제조업部門이 全般的으로 成長된 反面, 서비스업은 감소하는 경향을 보이나 全體的인 經濟構造面에서는 큰 變化가 없었다. ④An Approximation Method는 서울과 釜山의 都市機能의 특색을 잘 나타내고 있으며, 個別的 大都市의 經濟構造를 分析하는데 有用한 方法이라 생각한다.;This paper is intended to clarify to correalation between the B/N Ratio and the growth of Population, and how the change of economic structure of metropolitan area in Seoul and Pusan has been brought through the 1960s. Economic base concept analyzes the total economy of the community by dividing it into two categories : the exporting economic activity of the city and the internal city activity. The exporting economic activity which brings money into the community from outside region may contribute to the growth and maintenance of the city, and it is called basic activity or basic economic function. On the other hand, the internal city activity that goods and services are consumed within the community is called non-basic activity or non-basic economic function. In a sense, the theory of economic base concept proclaims a dualism. This concept was suggested by F.L, Olmstead (1921) and then systematized theoretically by R.B, Andrews through a technique for measuring the B/N Ratio by H. Hoyt. Therefore, it has been provided a useful tool for analysis of the urban aggregate economic activities since the 1930's. This study separates the total economic activities from basic and service activity by application of an approximation method which has been drawn out of the work of H. Hoyt, and showes the change of the economic structure in metropolitan area based on economic basic activity. Conclusions of this paper are as follows. (1) B/N Ratio increases according to the population growth (2) The leading basic activities in economic growth of metropolitan area are manufacture of metal products, construction, transportation and communication, personal services etc. The leading basic activities in Seoul are varified, therefore Seoul has a complex economic function, while the leading basic activities in Pusan consist of all manufacturing and retail trade, indicating strong industnial function in this area, (3) In the change of Economic structure of metropolitan area in Korea, the part of manufacturing had been increased, while the service work had been decreased through the 1960s. But, the whole economic structure has not been changed. (4) As an approximation method characterized the functions of Seoul and Pusan effectively, this method is considered to be useful tool in analysis of individual metropolitan economic structure.
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