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韓國에서의 家庭委託 保護實施의 可能性에 대한 硏究

Title
韓國에서의 家庭委託 保護實施의 可能性에 대한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE POSSIBILITY OF FOSTER HOME CARE OF CHILDREN IN KOREA : with special emphasis on the current trend of FHC in Korea
Authors
金和賢.
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
대학원 사회사업학과
Keywords
한국가정위탁보호입양일시위탁보호
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
아동은 자기 가정안에서 健全하게 養育됨이 바람직하다. 그러나 심각한 위기상황에 처하여 가정에서의 적절한 보호가 불가능한 아동을 위해서는 施設保護와 家庭委託保護方法이 있는데, 요즈음엔 시설보호로부터 아동에게 보다 유익하다고 인정되는 家庭委託保護로의 전환경향이 세계적인 추세이다. 우리나라의 아동보호는 주로 施設에 의존하여 왔으며, 사회사업기관에서 실시중인 一時的 家庭委託은 存在하나 엄밀한 의미로 볼 때 그것은 진정한 家庭委託保護로 보기가 어렵다. 이런 여건하에서, 본 연구자는 사회사업기관에 가입된 756명의 委託養育母 가운데 100명을 뽑아서 그들의 태도조사를 바탕으로 受容可能性을 타진하고, 全章을 通하여 한국에서의 家庭委託保護 프로그램의 실시에 기대되는 展望을 알아보고자 하였다. 歷史的으로 볼때, 아동보호 개념의 변화로 아동보호가 친족부양책임에서 사회적책임으로까지 확대되어 적극적인 勸利로 인정되는 현상과 核家族化 경향으로 가족구조가 변모되면서 직계가족에 의한 아동 양육이 불가능할 때는 家庭委託保護가 必要하게 되고 있다. 社會的인 측면에서도, 要保護兒童의 계속적인 發生으로 새로운 해결점을 필요로 하고 있고 해마다 증대되는 未婚母의 發生과 一時的 가정위기에서도 아동을 포기하려는 親勸抛棄 경향이 일고 있어서, 이러한 가정의 위기상황극복을 위해서는 근본적인 家庭委託保護가 적합할 것이다. 調査結果에 따른 委託養育母의 태도를 보면, 초기에는 경제적 동기에서 시작되는 경우가 많으나 兒童養育을 통하여 아동과의 情的交流를 바탕으로 아동자체에 애착과 관심을 갖게 되는 변화를 나타내게 되어 양육비의 不足에도 불구하고 계속적인 保護를 원하고 있고 長期的 家庭委託保護에도 肯定的인 立場을 보이고 있다. 또한, 血統을 중시하던 전통적 사상은 시대조류에 따라 완화되어 가는 경향이 있고 입양만큼 큰 영향을 미치지 않음이 나타나 可能性을 높여주고 있다. 그러나, 委託保護를 실시하기에는 경제적인 면이 不振하여 가장 큰 難題로 부각되고 있으므로 자금확충이 뒷받침된다면 家庭委託保護의 可能性은 밝을 것으로 생각된다. 앞으로의 효과적인 운영을 위해서는 적합한 委託母의 選定과 資金充當問題등이 계속 연구되어야 할 과제이며, 家庭委託保護는 아동의 幸福을 위해 兒童中心으로 이루어져야 하겠다.;It is most desirable to bring up children in their own family. However, in order to provide proper protection to those children who are unable to receive proper care in their family due to adverse circumstances, there are available two methods of institutional care and foster home care. The preference of foster home care is a worldwide trend in recent days on the ground that it is more beneficial to children than the institutional care. The protection of children in adverse circumstances in our country has been depending mainly upon the institutional care. Though a temporary foster home care program is presently being carried out by social work organizations across the country, it can hardly be recognized as genuine foster home care in the strict sense. It is intended in the present paper to inquire into the possibility of acceptance of hapless children and future prospect to be expected in the implementation of the foster home care program. This study was carried out by sampling randomly 100 persons from among 756 foster mothers registered with social work agencies and investigating their attitude towards the foster home care program. The concept of ohild protection has changed with the changes of the times. The responsibility of parents to support children has been expanded to the social responsibility. This suggests the necessity of foster home care when a child is unable to receive proper protection or care from family members in a direct line due to the change in family structure resulting from the formation of a nuclear family system in our society. From the social point of view, the ever-increasing number of children who need proper care has also become one of the most important social problems to be solved. In addition, there is every indication that parental authority is abandoned for the simple reason of family adversity along with the emergence of unmarried mothers whose number increases every year. In the light of these facts, the foster home care is considered to be appropriate to alleviate such family adversity of children. The findings of the study are summarized as follows : Most of the foster mothers interviewed told that they made up their minds to take care of other children with an economic motive and that, however, they became attached gradually to and concerned about the children through the exchange of affection in the course of rearing them. As a result, they changed their minds to provide continuously proper care to the children regardless of insufficient expenses for bringing up them and showed an affirmative attitude toward long-term foster home care. There is also every indication that the traditional idea that attaches great importance to the paternal lime is alleviated with the changes of the times. These phenomena may be considered to enhance the possibility of the foster home care program. From the economic point of view, however, the foster home care program poses the most difficult problem in its practical implementation due to the limited availability of necessary financial resourcds. Therefore, when this problem is solved, the FHC program may be considered to have a bright prospect. In order to maintain effective operation of the FHC program, it is condition precedent to select best qualified foster mothers and provide sufficient financial support to them. The FHC program should give the first consideration to children for their happiness.
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