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韓國女性 地位變化에 관한 文學社會學的 接近
- 韓國女性 地位變化에 관한 文學社會學的 接近
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- (A) study of sociology of literature on the change of the women's status : in case of the educated women's image which appeared in popular magazines during 1920s
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- 대학원 사회학과
- 여성지위; 문학사회학; 잡지단편소설; 지식여성상
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 文學社會學의 접근방법은 크게 나누어 두가지로 區分되어질 수 있다. 그 첫째 접근방법은 독일의 Leo Lo¨wenthal을 中心하여 發達 된 것으로 文學作品에 대한 社會學的 硏究를 주로하는 試圖를 말하며, 두번째 접근방법은 프랑스의 社會學者 Robert Esoarpit를 中心으로 한 見解로 전체사회내에서 차지하는 文學의 位置를 作家, 書籍, 續者의 세측면에서 糾明하고자 하는 방법을 말한다. Lo¨wenthal에 의하면, 作家는 그들의 作品을 통해 無意識的으로 자신이 속한 사회와 時代에 관련하여 記述한다고 한다. 그리하여 創造的인 文學은 社會構造와 文化的 變化 硏究에 하나의 文書로서 役割을 한다고 한다.
本 論文은 1920년대 한국여성지위의 變化에 관해 文學社會學的 方法, 그중에서도 특히 文學이 時代의 文書 役割을 한다는 Lo¨wenthal의 理論에 입각하여 연구하는데 그 目的이 있다.
원래 西洋에서 天賦人權說에 입각하여 여성지위의 향상을 위한 要求는 18세기말 프랑스革命과 더불은 女權宣言이래 사회구조적 변화에 따라 特續되었다. 이러한 운동은 女性은 人間化를 궁극 目的으로 하여 展開되었다. 우리나라의 경우 西歐的 意味의 여성지위의 변화를 위한 움직임은 없엇다. 특히 1920년대 日帝植民統治下라는 사회적 여건과 3.1獨立運動이후 민족적 요청으로 여성들이 敎國運動이나 獨立運動과 같은 애국운동은 벌였지만, 여성이 人權이나 民權을 주장하는 운동은 없었던 것이다. 대신 조국광복의 手段으로 보급되었던 여성교육의 결과 지식여성들은 現代的 自我意識, 社會意識을 갖게되었고 가정과 여성 지위변화를 도모하려 했다. 다시말하면 1920년대 韓國의 경우 소수여성들 사이에서는 變愛나 女性解放의 自由主義思想을 주장하기 시작하였으며, 한편으로는 日帝統治에시 主權을 되찾으려는 努力으로 敎育事業과 團體活動을 통한 拳國的 民族運動에 활발히 참여했던 것이다. 이러한 歷史的 時期를 背景으로 한국 여성의 家庭과 社會에서의 地位 및 役割에 변화를 가져온 것이다.
이러한 變化의 측면을 연구하기 위해 Lo¨wenthal의 文學社會學論에 의거하여 雜誌에 發表되었던 단편소설 23편에 등장한 지식여성 24명을 中心으로 그 內容을 分析하였다. 구체적으로 소설에서 捕寫된 지식여성의 사회적 성격과 地位에 關聯된 사실로서는 敎育程度, 修學地, 父親의 職業등을, 그들의 결혼에 관한 實態로는 年齡, 結婚觀, 配偶者 選擇過程과 선택방법, 選擇理由, 夫婦關係, 그리고 그들의 사회적 역할에 관한 것으로 織業과 社會的 役割등을 調査하였다. 이것을 計量的 方法을 사용하여 主題別 分析을 하는 한편 또한 變化한 여성생활을 反映한다고 생각되는 여성상을 積極的인 형태와 소극적인 형태로 記述的 分析을 하였다.
마지막으로 1920년대에 여성지위가 변하는데에 대해 종합적인 評價를 가한후 本硏究의 文學社會學的 接近이 갖는 制限點을 지적하였다.;Generally speaking, the approach of the sociology of the literature can be divided into two main classes. The first one, which has been developed around a German scholar, Leo Löwenthal, tries to research sociologically the literary work itself. The second one, which a French sociologist, Robert Escarpit has pioneered. examines sociologically outer side of the literature, which means the relation of the three lieterary aspects--a writer(an author), a book(a product), and a reader(a public)-- within a society in general. According to Löwenthal's theory, a writer unconsciously describes human life in the literary work with relation to his time and his society. Therefore, a creative literatune, he argues, is a direct reflection of various facets of social phenomenon and serves as a social document in the study of social structure and of cultural change.
The purpose of this thesis is to study on the change of the Korean women's status during 1920s by the approach of the sociology of literature--specifically, Löwenthal's proposition.
Historically, along with the French Revolution the Declaration of Women's Right has been done in the Western world. After that, the demand for the improvement of women's status, which was based on the spirit of inherent human rights, was continued in accordance with the change of social structure. It can be said that the ultimate goal of all the movement was the humanization of women.
In case of Korea, there hasn't been any movement for change of women's status like that of the West. The period on which the thesis is focused, 1920s has special meaning to the change of women's status. Socially, Korea was under the control of Japan and women of Korea were participated in the nation-wide independent movement of 1919, the First March Nation Salvation Movement (3ㆍ1獨立運動). This movement stimulated national consciousness on independence from Japan. The Korean people of that time began to realize the importance of education, since the education was regarded as a means to promise the liberation. As education of women became popularized through 1920s, educated women have positively constituted tens of women's organization with response to national request-as a means to be liberated from Japan. In other words, there was no women's liberation movement asking for women's equal rights or civili rights. Instead, learned women could have modern self- and social-consciousness through their education, and they tried to change women's status in both home and society. Namely, while some learned women such as KIM Won-ju, KIM Myung-soon, NAH Hyoe-suk, who were the famous women of letters, started to insist on women's liberation. Others were engaged in activities like teaching, organization movement to answer for national call. There were sudden numerical increase of these fields.
Assuming that literature is a direct document of the time, some 23 pieces of work out of 285 short stories which were published in the popular magazines through 1920s were selected, in order to investigate the changing image of women's status. All 23 short stories were dealt with the educated women, and since the actual analytical unit was the image of educated women, total number to be treated was 24. It was classified into several items to study educated women's social characteristics and status of this time--educational level, place educated, father's occupation, marriage age, attitude of marriage(love making vs.arranged), actual process for marriage (love-making vs.arranged), married life(relation with spouse, with parents'-in-law), presence of occupation, and other social activities(if any). Using some quantitative method, all these items were examined both thematic analysis and descriptive analysis. Furthermore, to give proof the fictional data, some actual material of that time such as newspaper articles, and those of magazine were added at the end of each item.
Finally, it was given the general evaluation on the change of educated women's status of 1920s and pointed out the limitation of the sociology of literature.
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