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養子制度에 關한 硏究

養子制度에 關한 硏究
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(A) Study on Adoption System
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대학원 법학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
Adoption is essentially the fictitious creation of blood relationship between persons who are not so related. The progress of this system can be described in three stages as follows: (1) Adoption for family lineage, (2) Adoption for parent, (3) Adoption for adoptive son. Recently, there have been many changes in the Adoption System. The conspicuous fact is that the Adoption System for family and parents has been changed to the Adoption System for children. In contemporary Western Societies the chief function of Adoption is to provide the children with care and welfare. However, in Korean Society, Adoption has served merely as a supplement to the institution of heirship. Comparing our Adoption Law System with other modern Western ones, our System has not escaped from the pre-modern one. This is because our present Civil Law System is based on the Family - Standard System tinted with the Parent - Standard System and Adopted Son - Standard System. For instance, the factors of Family - Standard System are as follows: (1) recognition of the Adoption after death and the Adoption by the testment, (2) Adoption for succeeding to the head of family, (3) prohibition of revocation of the adopted son as the householder. In this thesis, I reviewed the Adoption Law System of some foreign countries and made a comparative analysis to make suggestions for the improvement of the Korean Adoption Law. I want to conclude this thesis by saying that: (1) the Householder System should be abrogated, from which pre-modern Adoption System was originated, (2) for the purpose of the child welfare, an Adoption Order should be made by a Court, (3) Introduction of the Complete Adoption System is urgently needed.;養子制度는 親子關係가 없는 사람들 사이에 親子關係를 擬制하는 것이다. 現代養子法은 子本位 養子制度에 基礎를 두고 있다. 特히 西歐社會에 있어서 養子制度의 주된 機能은 子의 福祉와 保護에 있다. 그런데 우리나라의 養子制度는 中國의 影響을 받아서 祖上의 祭祀를 主宰하고 家의 繼承을 위한 이른바 「家를 爲한」 養子制度를 基幹으로 하고 있어, 民法에서 「어버이를 爲한」 또는 「子를 爲한」 養子制度를 새로이 採用하였으나, 어디까지나 現代的 理念과는 거리가 먼 養子法임을 免치 못하고 있다. 이에 本硏究는 一般的인 入養의 動機, 養子制度의 變遷過程을 살펴 보고, 근래에 접어들어 「子를 爲한」 養子法으로 改正된 世界各國(英國, 美國, 獨逸, 프랑스, 스위스, 日本)의 養子制度를 比較, 考察하였다. 또한 우리나라 養子制度의 史的인 變遷過程을 調査하고, 우리나라 現行 養子制度의 特徵과 入養의 實態를 알았보았으며, 1976年에 새로 마련된 入養特例法의 內容을 살펴보았다. 그리고 結論的으로 우리나라 養子制度의 問題点을 再檢討하고, 改善方向을 摸索하여 그에 對한 立法論을 提示해 놓았다.
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