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영어조건문의 의미분석

Title
영어조건문의 의미분석
Other Titles
(A) Semantic analysis of conditionals in english
Authors
劉水仙.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 영어영문학과
Keywords
영어조건문조건문영문법
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
이 논문의 목적은 S_(2) if S_(1) 형식이나 if S_(1), then S_(2) 형식을 가진 영어 조건문의 통사구조와 의미구조를 밝히려는 것이다. 제Ⅱ장에서는 조건문의 의미분석을 위한 준비작업으로서 조건절의 종류와 조건문의 통사구조 및 조건절을 받는 'it'의 특징을 분석한다. 조건문의 용법에 따라 조건절을 분류하면, 발화내용의 본질적인 부분을 차지하는 제한적인 것과, 발화행위에 대한 화자의 논평(comment)을 나타내는 비제한적인 것이 있다. 통사구조의 면에서는 S_(2) if S_(1) 형식의 조건절이 주절 부사에 종속되어 있는 반면, if S_(1), then S_(2) 형식의 조건절은 주절과 동등하게 연결되어있으며, 조건절을 받는 'it'은 조응사가 아닌 허사의 특징을 지니고 있다. 제Ⅲ장에서는 조건문의 의미를 밝히기 위한 기초작업으로 if S_(1), then S_(2) 형식을 가진 조건문의 진리조건을 논한다. if S_(1), then S_(2) 형식의 조건문은 논리기호의 질료적 함의 S_(1)⊃S_(2)와 같이 S_(1)이 참인데 S_(2)가 거짓인 경우에만 거짓이고 나머지 경우에는 참이 된다. 또한 if S_(1), then S_(2) 형식이 문장은 긍정법(modus ponens)이나 부정법(modus tollens)과 같은 자연적 추론의 형식화를 위해서나, 조건문이 강조문, 가상문, 자격문, 내기문, 의견조사문 등으로 사용된 경우의 의미해석을 위해서 S_(1)⊃S_(2)와 동일하게 해석될 필요가 있다. 더욱이 'if…then'과 '⊃'를 동일시할 때 생기는 S_(1)과 S_(2)간의 연관성이나 필연성 등의 문제들은 'if…then' 자체에서 비롯된 문제가 아니라 대화상의 함축(conversational implicature)이나 발화양식(mode of speaking) 등과 같은 문장사용과 관련된 적절성의 차원에서 비롯된 문제들이다. 요컨대 if S_(1), then S_(2) 조건문의 진리조건은 논리기호의 질료적 함의 S_(1)⊃S_(2)와 동일하며 그들간의 차이는 화용상의 문제라는 것이 이 논문의 요지다.;The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate the semantic properties of conditional sentences in English which typically have the form either (S_(2) if S_(1)) or (if S_(1), then S_(2)). I discuss, in chapter Ⅱ, some basic structural aspects of conditionals: (ⅰ) the types of 'if' clause, (ⅱ) the structure of conditional sentences of the forms (S_(2) if S_(1)) and (if S_(1), then S_(2))' and (ⅲ) the nature of 'it' related to an 'if' - conditional clause. Conditional clauses may be divided into two types, restrictive and non-restrictive. The former expresses a proposition on which the truth value, or meaning, of the entire conditional sentence depends essentially, while the latter only expresses the speaker's speech attitude towards what is expressed by the main clause. The if-clause (S_(1)) of a conditional sentence (S_(2) if S_(1)) is shown to be subordinated, like other adverbial clauses, to the main clause (S_(2)). On the other hand, the if-clause of a conditional sentence (if S_(1), then S_(2)) is coordinated with the main clause. This latter construction may, however, be derived from the (S_(2) if S_(1)) construction by an ordinary Adverb-Preposing. In conditionals, 'it' seems to refer to the proposition expressed by an if-clause. It is, however, argued that this 'it' is not an anaphoric pronoun, but an expletive having only a grammatical function. In chapter Ⅲ, I attempt to define the truth condition of a conditional sentence in English and thus to analyze its meaning, both literal and contextual. Here I take the position that identifies the truth condition of a conditional (if S_(1), then S_(2)) in English with that of material implication S_(1)⊃ S_(2): like material implications, conditional sentences are false only if the main clauses are false when the if-clauses are true. I support this position by showing how such typical laws of logics as modus ponens and modus tollens based on the notion of material implication must be employed in natural deduction or ordinary rational argumentation. Further supporting evidence is obtained from ordinary discourse using as emphatic, hypothetical, qualifying, betting, or opinion surveying statements. Unlike the purely truth functional connective '⊃', the conditional connective (if - then) of English has some other aspects in meaning, or conversational implicatures. For this reason, true conditional sentences are sometimes found inappropriately spoken. Sometimes conclusions do not necessarily follow from the premises expressed by if-clauses, and at other times there is no relevance found between premises and conclusions. These aspects of the meaning of conditionals in English are shown to be better treated as parts of pragmatics. In this way, we may have a simple and elegant treatment of the meaning of conditionals in English.
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