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開化期의 文官服에 對한 硏究
- 開化期의 文官服에 對한 硏究
- Other Titles
- (The) study of the changes on Government officials' garments of the Chosun days
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 개화기; 문관복; 의류직물학
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 經國大典과 大典會通에 의하면 朝鮮의 官服에는 朝服 祭服 公服 常服이 있었다. 이것 중에서 朝服 祭服은 先聖의 遺制이기에 변함이 없었으나 公服 常服은 高宗 21年(1884) 5月부터 변화가 있게 되었으니 이는 開化와 함께 政治 經濟 社會 전반에 걸쳐 많은 변화가 있었던 舊韓末의 時代相에 따른 必然的인 服飾의 변화였다. 1884年부터 20餘年間에 걸친 文官服의 변화 과정을 살펴보면 高宗 21年 5月에 衣服 改革이 있었으며 團領의 色은 紅 靑 綠色을 없애고 黑色 한가지만을 사용하게 하여 黑團領 일색이 되었고 團領의 소매넓이를 줄이게 하였으며 廣袖인 道袍 창의 中衣 直領을 없애고 窄袖衣인 周衣를 着用하도록 했으나 잘 施行되지 않아 高宗 31年(1894) 6月 甲牛更張 때 衣服 簡易化가 다시 試圖되었다. 즉 官服은 黑團領 紗帽 品帶로 하게 했고 12月에는 大禮服 常服 2種이 있어 大禮服은 黑團領 紗帽 답호 紗帶로 되어 進官時에 着用하도록 하니 周衣 답호가 禮服이 되었다.
高宗 32年(1895) 4月에 西洋式 武官服이 制定되자 이때부터 制樣은 같았고 胸背의 紋樣으로 文官 武官을 區別했던 官服에 製式의 差異가 있게 되었다.
8月에는 文官服裝式이 頒布되었는데 大禮服 小禮服 常服 3種으로 되었고 光武4年(1900) 勅令 第14號로 西洋式 文官服이 頒布되어 이로부터 中國式 服飾과의 二重構造가 西洋式 服飾과의 二重構造로 바뀌게 된다. 大典會通과 1895年의 文官服을 비교하면,
① 團領의 色이 黑色 위조로 되었고 窄袖가 되었으며
② 公服이란 單語가 없어지고 大禮服 小禮服이란 用語가 생겼고 소매넓이로 大禮服 小禮服을 區別했으며
③ 冠은 公服에 着用하도록 制定은 되었지만 儀式에만 사용하던 복두가 없어지고 紗帽로 되었으며
④ 신은 黑皮靴 挾金靴가 木靴로 되었고
⑤ 常服은 團領이 아니고 周衣 답호 紗帶로 되었는데
進見時에는 입지 못하게 하였으니 常服이란 單語의 槪念이 달라지게 되었다.
1895年 8月에 頒布된 文官服의 構成과 그 製式을 살펴 봄으로써 大典會通 以來 조금씩 변화된 高宗朝의 官服에 대해 알게 되고 또한 國初부터 制樣의 변화가 없었던 公服 常服의 製式도 미루어 알 수 있다.
大禮服은 動駕 慶節 問安 禮接時에 着用하며 黑團領 紗帽 品帶 靴子(木靴) 中單 胸背로 構成되며,
小禮服은 進見時에 着用하고 혹 大禮服을 대신해서 입어도 되며 大禮服과 그 構成은 같으나 黑團領의 소매넓이만 다르니 實物을 實測해 본 결과 大禮服의 소매넓이는 40~48cm 였고 小禮服은 27~32cm 였다.
常服은 內外官 仕進時에만 着用하고 □笠 周衣 답호 絲帶로 構成된다.
1900年의 文官服은 大禮服 小禮服 常服 3種인데, 大禮服은 英國의 宮中用 禮服을 模倣한 日本의 大禮服을 參照하여 만들었고 大禮服은 1900年代에 歐美諸國에서 사용하던 市民의 禮服인 眞絲高帽(silk hat)에 厚錄高套(frock coat)와 燕尾服 2種이며 常服은 歐美諸國 市民의 平服인 세비로(sack coat)였다.;According to 'Kyong-kook-dai-jun' and 'Dai-jun-hwuai-tong', there were four types of garments for government officials in Chosun such as 'Jo-bok', 'Jei-bok', 'Gong-bok' and 'Sang-bok'. Among these 'Jo-bok' and 'Jei-bok' which had been heredity institutions were not altered but some modifications in 'Gong-bok' and 'Sang-bok' had been occured since May 1884.
The reason of these modification which is a kind of change in costume and its ornaments were mainly due to the political, economical and social changes followed by enlightenment of those days of Chosun.
Analysing the processes of change in civil officials garments for 20 years since 1884, we can find that there was reformation of garments in May 21st year of Go-Jong. As a result, first, the red, blue, and green colour were removed in 'Dan-lyong' and only black color are required to be used and 'Dan-lyong' became 'Black-Danlyong', secondly the width of sleeves are required to make narrower and finally the use of 'Do-po', 'Chang-uei', 'Joong-Uei' and 'Jik-lyong' of which sleeves were so wide that these were abolished. Instead, 'Joo-uei' which has narrower sleeves was required to use. But these systems had not been enforced well.
Therefore, the simplification of costume were attemped again in June 1894, through rebirth of 'Ga-po' such that 'Heuk-darn-lyong'(Black Dan-lyong), 'Sa-mo' and 'Poom-dai' were to be used for the government officials garments and two types of garments, 'Dai-lye-bok' and 'Sang-bok' were in used in December of the same year. 'Dai-Lye-bok' consisted of 'Heuk-dan-lyong', 'Sa-mo' and 'Dai'(band), while 'Sang-bok' consisted of 'Dop-ho' and 'Sa-dai' which were required to be worn in the presence of palace. From this time, 'Joo-uei' and 'Dap-ho' became ceremonial garment.
In April 1895, Westen style uniform for military officers were established so that there was difference in design of uniform for civil and military officers which had been distinguished through only emblem of 'Hyung-bai' of uniform. Until that time, the design of military and civil officials had been the same.
In August 1895, the types of civil officials uniform were promulgated to consist of 'Dai-lye-bok', 'So-lye-bok' and 'Sangbok'. In 1900, No. 14 of the Imperial decree issued for the Western style uniform for civil officials. Thereafter, the double structure to Chinese style in costume and its ornaments changed to the double structure to Western style.
Comparing 'Dai-jun-hwuai-tong' to the uniform of civil officials in 1895, following can be inferred
1) The main color of 'Dan-lyong' was black and the sleeves became narrower.
2) The word 'Gong-bok' was disappeared and new terms 'Dai-lye-bok' and 'So-lye-bok' became in use and the size of sleeves distinguished between 'Dai-lye-bok' and 'So-lye-bok'.
3) The use of headdess was formed but 'Bok-doo' was not in use in the ceremony to become 'Sa-mo'.
4) In case of foot wear, 'Mok-wha' were in use instead of 'Heuk-pi-hwa' and 'Hyop-kuem-hwa'.
5) 'Sang-bok' was not 'Dan-lyong' but consisted of 'Joo-uei', 'Dap-ho' and 'Sa-dai'. But 'Sang-bok' was not required to wear in the Imperial audience. Accordingly, the concept of 'Sang-bok' and different meaning.
It is possible to get information of costume government officials through research its composition and design which was issued in August 1895. In addition the design of 'Gong-bok' and 'Sang-bok' can be inferred, which had not been changed in design from early Yi Dynasty.
'Dai-lye-bok' which consisted of 'Heuk-dan-lyong', 'Sa-mo', 'Poom-dai', 'Mok-wha', 'Joong-dan' and 'Hyung-bai' was in use in the presence of King, national festival, inquiry and cordial reception.
'So-lye-bok' of which composition was same to 'Dai-lye-bok' worn either in the presence of palace or in use on the behalf of 'Dai-lye-bok'. Main distinguish between 'Dai-lye-bok' and 'So-lyebok' was the size of sleeves. Former had 40-48 cm of sleeves and later 27-32 cm.
'Sang-bok' which was consisted of 'Chil-lip', 'Joo-uei', 'Dapho' and 'Sa-dai' was Wore in the official hours by government officials.
In the days of 1900, there was three types of garments for government officials such as 'Pai-lye-bok', 'Sa-lye-bok' and 'Sang-bok'. 'Dai-lye-bok' was made through reference of Japanese 'Dai-lye-bok' which was imitated from ceremonial garments of England.
Silk hat and frock coat and morning coat which were ceremonial garments for civilians in 1900 of Western countries were in use as a 'So-lye-bok'. Sack-coat which was casual wear for civilians was wore as 'Sang-bok'.
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