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勤勞女性의 就業構造 및 職業移動에 關한 硏究

Title
勤勞女性의 就業構造 및 職業移動에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Occupational Structure and Occupational Mobility of the Female Workers
Authors
金義順.
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
대학원 사회학과
Keywords
근로여성취업구조직업이동
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
産業化의 主要目標는 그 社會 모든 成員의 經濟的인 生活水準을 向上 시키는데 있다. 그러나 經濟發展의 意義는 單純히 物質的인 生活環境을 改善하는 데만 있는 것이 아니고 人間의 全生活을 豊富하게 하는데 있다. 우리나라는 1962年來 2次에 걸친 經濟開發5個年事業의 推進으로 高度의 經濟成長을 이룩하였으며 점차 近代的인 産業構造의 樣相을 띠게 되었다. 그러나 産業의 量的 成長에도 불구하고 工業化의 主體가 되는 勞動者에 대한 關心은 그다지 기울여지지 못하였다. 職場勞動者들의 경우에는 實際的인 勞動時間外에도 모든 人間生活이 勞動을 中心으로 이루어지고 있어 이들의 職場에서의 適應關係는 곧 職場밖에서의 그의 一般生活 全般에의 適應 내지 滿足과 깊이 聯關되어 진다. 經濟發展에 따른 工業化로 女性의 就業率이 增加하고 있으며 특히 製造業分野에 있어서의 女性就業率은 현저히 높아지고 있다. 따라서 앞으로의 工業化促進에 對處하기 위한 長期的인 人力□給計劃을 위해서는 産業豫備軍으로서의 女性勞動의 問題點과 潛在力을 把握하고 이에 適切한 敎育 訓練計劃이 樹立·推進되어야 할 것이다. 女性勞動問題에의 接近은 多樣하겠으나 本硏究는 勞動의 個人的인 側面에 重點을 두고 그들을 把握하고저 하였다. 즉 2個 製造業體(裂菓. 衣類製造)에 從事하고 있는 勤勞女性 157名의 事例調査(質問紙法에 의한)를 통하여 ① 勤勞女性들의 就業構造, ② 勤勞女性들의 職業移動, ③ 勤勞女性들의 職場滿足度의, ④ 勤勞女性들의 勞動觀(일에 대한 態度)이 어떠한지 그 事實을 발견함과 동시에 한편으로는 女性勞動에 대한 産業社會學的 내지는 産業心理學的 接近方法의 適用을 試圖해 보려는데 本硏究의 意圖가 있다 하겠다. 發見된 事實들을 要約하면 다음과 같다. ① 應答者들은 低年齡層의 未婚女性들로 敎育程度가 낮으며 (中中退 以下가 91%), 父親의 職業은 주로 農業(33%)과 商業(17.8%)이며 5名以上의 兄弟를 가진 大家族出身女性들로 現在의 住居生活은 不安定한 狀態이다. ② 就業動機로는 生計를 위해, 동생의 學費調達등 經濟的 理由가 大部分이다.(56.7%) ③ 이들은 親舊, 親知, 親戚을 통해서 就業하고 있으며 敎育程度에 따라 就業經路가 다름을 알 수 있다. 즉 敎育程度가 높을수록 公式的 就業通路에 의해서 就業하는 比率이 높은 것 같다. ④ 現職從事期間은 1年未滿(33.8%), 1~3年 (29.3%), 3~5年(25.5%)으로 年令이 높을수록 現職從事期間이 긴 것으로 나타났다. ⑤ 月收入 1만5천원 以下가 과반수이상(63.7%)이나 되어 이들의 作業時間이 12時間 惑은 12時間가까운 勞動임을 考慮한다면 이들의 賃金水準은 극히 낮음을 알 수 있다. ⑥ 45.3%가 1年以上 職場移動經驗을 했으며 年令이 높은 層에서 職場移動이 많았고 月收入과 職場變更回數와는 깊은 關聯이 있었다. ⑦ 이들의 世代的 職場移動類型은 地位差 없는 同産業, 同職種間의 水平的移動이 普遍的이며 移動方向(幅)은 制限되어 있다. ⑧ 經濟的인 要因이 주된 移動事由가 되고(30%) 있는 것 같다. ⑨ 現職場에 대해서는 同僚關係에 가장 滿足을 느끼고 있으며 그 다음은 職業環境에 대해서이다. ⑩ 不滿을 느끼는 要因으로는 社會的 認定, 勤務時間, 昇進可能性등의 順이다. ⑪ 職場滿足과 關係가 있으리라는 9個項目에 대한 意見을 點數로 나타낸 職場滿足度는 전체적으로 낮은 편이라 하겠다.(上 : 25.5%, 中 : 40.8%, 下 : 33%) 年令과 滿足度와는 關聯이 없으며 敎育程度가 높은 層에서 낮은 滿足度를 보였고, 成長地가 都市인 경우에 높은 滿足을, 그리고 月收入이 높을수록 滿足度는 높아지고 있었다. ⑫ 半數程度(52.8%)가 現職場을 바꾸고 싶다고 하였으며 可能하다면 事務職(22%), 專門職(21%)을 가지고 싶다고 하고 있다. ⑬ 可能할 경우라는 前提下에 自身이 希望하는 職業과 希望스러운 配偶者職業을 職業間距離에 따라 각각 評點하여 尺度化한 職業熱望水準은 比較的 높으며 敎育程度가 높을수록 職業熱望水準도 높으며 父親의 職業階層보다 한 階層 높은 水準(距離上 區分에 의한)의 職業을 원하는 것으로 보인다. ⑭ "平生살기에 充分한 經濟的 여유가 있어도" 그와 關係없이 부지런히 일하겠다고 하며(68.8%), 年令이 높은 層과 敎育程度가 높은 層에서는 그러한 경우에 하고 싶은 일만 하겠다는 態度를 나타냈다. ⑮ 일하는 時間과 餘暇時間의 配分에 대해서는 일하는 時間보다 餘暇時間이 많은 편을 希望하는 率이 좀 높게 나타났다.(53%) 이러한 態度는 敎育程度가 높을수록, 年令이 많을수록, 月收入이 높은 層에서 더 많은 比率로 나타났다.;Korea has experienced a remarkable economic growth largely due to the two 5-year Economic Development Plans since 1962. As a result, the industrial structure of Korea has been modernized and rural-urban migration has been accelerated. It has been also noticed that the population of female workers has increased especially in the labor-intensive manufacturing sector. Nevertheless, it seems that little attention has been paid to the welfare problems facing the female workers who have made significant contribution toward the successful industrialization, Accordingly, in order to develop- a meaningful long-run plan for labor force, it is necessary to study the potential female manpower as the reserved labor force, and to provide the prospective female workers with necessary training. There are various approaches in investigating female worker's problems. However, this study primarily deals with the problems on individual dimensions, A total of 157 female workers was sampled from two manufacturing plants(one confectionery plant and one garment plant) and were interviewed by the researcher. The objectives of the study are to investigate 1) the female worker's employment structure, 2) occupational mobility, 3) her job satisfaction, and 4) value on work. And for this study, industrial sociological and industrial psychological methodologies are applied to find out -the facts listed above. Main findings are as follows : 1. The majority of the respondents are young and unmarried with low level of education(91% are elementary school graduates or drop-outs in secondary schools. 33 per cent of the respondent's fathers are farm operators and 17.8 per cent are merchants. 2. 57 per cent of the respondents are motivated to work for earning money to support their family living and the education of their siblings. 3. They were introduced to the present jobs through their friends or relatives. It appears that the types of channeling for employment very with educational levels of the respondents. That is, the highly educated tends to rely on formal channels to find a job. 4. 33.8 per cent of the respondents have been on the job less than one year, 29.3 per cent are 1 to 3 years, 25.5 per cent are 3 to 5 years. The older the age of the respondents, the longer they have stayed on the job. 5. 63.7 per cent of the respondents are paid less than 15,000 wons a month. These wage rates are very low in view of the length of working approximately twelve hours a day. 6. Approximately 45 per cent have experienced once or more job changes since they started the career. The senior workers have more experiences of job charges than the juniors. There is a positive relationship between the level of monthly payments and the frequency of the job change. 7. In general, the female workers tend to change their jobs horizontally in the same industry and in the same type of job. And their job changes are likely to be limited within a narrow distance. 8. 30 per cent of the expressed motives for job shifts are found as economic reasons. 9. The primary source of job satisfaction seems to be food co-worker relationships. The second source of satisfaction is the good physical environments of the working place. 10. The principal sources of dissatisfation lie in lack of social recognition on their doing, long working hour and limited opportunities for promotion. 11. The degree of lob satisfaction, which is measured in terms of score given on nine items, is generally found as low : 25.5 per cent are high, 40.8 per cent are medium and. 33.0 per cent are low. There is no signifiant correlation between the age of the respondents and their degree of job satisfaction. The highly educated tends to exert a low degree of job satisfaction. Those who have been grown in urban areas or those who are paid higher salary tend to show high degree of satisfaction. 12. Over half of the female workers sampled want to change their present jobs. 22 per cent want clerical jobs and 21 per cent hope to be professional workers. 13. The level of occupational aspiration, which is measured in terms of occupational gap between the hoped-for job of her own and that of her would be-husband, is found as generally high. The highly educated tends to have a higher level of occupational aspiration. The respondents generally want to have a job which is higher than that their fathers engaged in by one step in terms of social status or prestige. 14. 69 per cent say that they will continue to work even if they earned enough money for good life. But the senior women and the highly educated state that they will select only what they are personally interested in such a case. 15. Regarding the distribution of living hours between work and leisure, 53 per cent want to have more hours for leisure than for work. This tendency is distinguishing for those who received higher training or higher salaries and those who are older.
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