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예술을 통한 인간한계상황의 초월

Title
예술을 통한 인간한계상황의 초월
Other Titles
(THE) LIMITATIONS OF THE HUMAN CONDITION TRANSCENDED THROUGH ART : THE WELL OF THE SAINTS & DEIRDRE OF THE SORROWS
Authors
김소량
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 영어영문학과
Keywords
예술인간한계상황The Well of the SaintsDeirdre of the Sorrows
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
John Millington Synge의 예술세계는 realism과 poetic imagination을 양 축으로 하여 이루어져 있다. 그는 삶을 충실히 그리면서도, 그 삶의 실상을 상상력의 힘으로 초월하여 보편적인 진리를 구한다. Synge은 문학을 보고서나 교훈주의로 전락시켜 버린 사실주의나 자연주의자들을 비판하였을 뿐만 아니라, 인간 삶에 충실하기 보다는 예술미만을 고집하는 art for art's sake도 반대 한다. 무대는 "reality"와 "artistic joy"를 동시에 보여주어야 한다고 그는 믿기 때문이다. Synge은 애란의 농어촌에서 자신의 예술관에 합당한 시적인 상상력과 언어를 발견한다. Aran Islands의 여행은 그에게 커다란 전환점이 된다. 자연과 원시적인 생활에 의해서 고양된 물리적·정신적 시각을 가지는 새로운 존재양식을 그곳에서 경험한다. 그는 자연과 교감하는 Aran섬사람들의 생활에서 기질적으로 그들과 예술가사이에는 유사점이 있음을 발견한다. 그러나 한편으로는 폭풍노도로 생명을 위협하는 자연과 직면하여 무력감과 소외감을 느끼며 생존을 위해 매일의 노고에 시달리는 그들의 모습도 본다. Synge은 애란서부와 Aran Islands에서 보고 듣고 겪은 그의 이런 경험들을 소재로 하여 현실세계 및 시간의 파괴적인 작용과, 아름다움과 영원에 대한 강렬한 vision사이에서 갈등하는 인물들을 그려낸다. 본 논문은 The Well of the Saints 와 Deirdre of the Sorrows에서 고통스러운 현실과 시간이라는 인간 한계상황이 예술을 통하여 어떻게 초월되는 가를 살펴보고자 했다. The Well of the Saints의 Martin Doul은 시인적 기질과 상상력을 가지고 있다. 그는 매우 감각적이고, 주위에 대한 감수성과 상상력이 뛰어나며 이를 시적인 언어로 표현한다. 그는 시력을 회복하게 되고, 좌절과 비참함으로 점철한 현실세계의 경험을 한다. 그러나 그는 다시 돌아온 blindness속에서 상상력을 통하여 자연을 관조하고 기쁨을 느낀다. 그가 blindness를 선택함은 인간 개인으로서의 존엄성과 자유, 그리고 미에 대한 자신의 vision을 지키려는 의지의 표현이다. Deirdre of the Sorrows 에서는 노년과 쇠퇴의 주제가 예술의 영원성에 관한 주제와 연결되어 있다. Deirdre와 Naisi의 사랑은 자연과 조화를 이루며 존재한다. 그러나 불행히도 인간과 자연은 시간의 파괴적인 작용에 종속되어 벗어날 수 없다. Deirdre는 이런 인간의 한계조건을 초월할 수 있는 영원성과 완전성을 위해 Emain 으로 돌아간다. 그녀는 젊음과 아름다움, 그리고 사랑이 서서히 마멸되어 가는 것은 이른 죽음을 통해서만 초월될 수 있음을안다. 그녀의 죽음은 인간의 한계를 벗어나는 마지막 초월이 된다. 죽음을 선택하여 그녀는 자신의 삶과 사랑을 영원한 기쁨과 승리로 만든다. 그녀와 Naisi는 그들의 전설인 영원한 미의 세계에서 충족된 삶을 누릴 수 있다. Synge의 character들은 물질적 안정이나 삶의 길이를 연장시키는 문제보다는 자신들의 시적인 진실이나 가치있는 삶에 대한 vision을 중요하게 여긴다. 그들은 영원과 미의 세계를 추구하며, 자신들의 자아가 평안을 느낄 수 있는 세계를 언어의 힘을 빌어 창조해 내려고 노력한다. 그리고 마침내 그들은 현실세계와 시간의 속박에서 벗어난 자유로운 존재가 된다. 이와 같이 Synge은 인간존재가 가지는 한계성과 직면하여 초월의 가능성을 예술세계 속에서 추구하였다.;John Millington Synge is noted for his realism. Since, though the realism is acknowledged, the other pole of his art is poetic imagination. He achieved the drama in which life is honestly pictured but also transcended by artistic imagination. He largely reacts against two opposing attitudes toward art. On one side are the realists and the naturalists who seek to reduce literature to a report or didacticism. He compares drama with the symphony urging that neither of them proves or teaches anything. On the other side, he objects to the extreme exponents of "art for art's sake" who are supposed to be beautiful but are not true to life. In the preface to The Playboy of the Western World he argues that on the stage "one must have reality, and one must have joy". Reality must flower into humorous and imaginative joy or exaltation. In the rural & fishing villages of Ireland, Synge finds the rich and living imagination and language which rake it "possible for a writer to be rich and copious in his words". The turning point in Synge's creative life is his going to the Aran Islands. He there experiences new modes of being in which physical and spiritual perspectives are heightened by nature and by the primitive character of Aran life. He finds a sympathy between man and nature. In his enthusiasm for all things primitive, he even finds affinities between the peasant and the artist. But he finds the daily toil and struggle for existence of those "beings who feel their isolation in the face of a universe that wars on them with winds and seas" as well. He sees man as embattled and doomed in a hostile world. He uses what he has drawn from the life of Aran and of Western Ireland to create a visionary world in which the dramatic struggle is always between the destructive effects of life and time and the vivifying hope of a vision of beauty and eternity. This thesis aims to analyse The Well of the Saints and Deirdre of the Sorrows in order to pursue the theme of art as the transcendence of the actual world and time. In The Well of the Saints Martin Doul has the temperament and the imagination of the artist. The indications of it can be discerned in his marked sensuousness, his delight in words, his sensitivity to moods and surroundings, and his imaginings about the world. When blind he has two illusions that give him pleasure and comfort in his affliction: that he and Mary are a beautiful couple and that the sighted world is full of wonder and delight. The disillusionment that comes with the sight is two-fold. The first is the inevitable discovery by each of the ugliness of the other. The second is that Martin finds the sighted world a frustration and wretchedness. He is able to see imperfections of the world with a clarity unattainable by men like Timmy the Smith whose perceptions have been dulled by routine. Sickened by the ugly actuality, he rejects it. With the sense of sight gone, he sees the world about him in a way lost to the sighted world. The blind Martin has far finer perception than the sighted. His sense of hearing, touch, and smell are acute and give him a delight in nature which none of the villagers enjoys. But the villagers insist that Martin and Mary should share the common view of actuality, deny them their individual vision. Martin's choice of blindness, therefore, comes to represent a deliberate attempt to retain an inner feeling of dignity and freedom, and his own vision of beauty. He would rather suffer physical privation than lose his inner eyes. He, in his blindness, looks on the inward splendors of imagining the ideal beauty of nature. He, therefore, is a powerful spokesman for the imaginative world of the artist. Deirdre of the Sorrows centers on the theme of age and decay and links it with the theme of art. The eternity of love and beauty that Deirdre envisons is not to be found on the earthly world, but in a quite different realm-the unchanging perfection of her legend. She and Naisi become themselves immutable parts of a work of art. Deirdre rejects Emain and Conchubor, the aging High King because it is an unnatural resting place for one who has learned to be at one with the nature. Conchubor is a materialistic being who belongs in the artificial world of Emain Macha and is blind to the natural world. But like Deirdre Naisi and his brothers are identified with nature. The fulfilled love of Deirdre and Naisi is expressed in terms of nature. Unfortunately man and nature are subject to the destruction of time. To assure the perfection that can transcend the limitations of the human condition, Deirdre decides to return to Emain. She knows that the terrible, gradual attrition of love and of youthful beauty can be conquered only through the choice of early death. Deirdret's death is the final triumph over limitation. Time and natural decay are transcended. Through death she perpetuates a story of her life and love that will be a joy and triumph to the ends of life and time. The lovers can live eternally fulfilled in the world of eternal beauty that is their legend. Synge's characters are persistently concerned with the quality of life : material security and the length of life matter less to them than their own vision of poetic truth or of the good life. His plays are essentially dramas of departure. The characters wish to escape not only the greed and coarseness of commonplace existence, but also ugliness, age and decay. They seek a realm of permanence and beauty, and attempt to create through the power of language worlds of beauty in which the self can live at ease. In conclusion, Synge wants to face the limitations of human existence, and yet insist on the possibilities of transcendence through the world of art.
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