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北宋朝의 絹織業에 대한 一考察
- 北宋朝의 絹織業에 대한 一考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on the Silk Craft in the Northern Sung Dynasty
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사학과
- 북송조; 견직업; 사학
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 北宋朝는 政治的으로 安定됨에 따라 經濟的으로도 成長을 이룩하던 時期로, 이러한 社會經濟的 變化속에서 手工業과 商業이 緊密한 細帶關係를 맺고 發展하였으며, 특히 絹織業은 北宋朝의 經濟를 代表하던 것이라 하겠다.
本稿에서 考察하고자 한것은 北邊의 防備를 위한 朝廷의 絹織物에 대한 需要가 增加하면서 講究된 調達策과 絹織物의 流通이 活潑하여지면서 더욱 發達한 絹織業의 實態를 把握하므로서 絹織業의 發達이 宋代 經濟發展의 重要한 一翼을 차지하였다는 것을 浮刻하고자한 것이다.
그리하여 먼저 北宋朝의 絹織物에 대한 全般的 槪觀을 통하여 當時 絹織業의 規模를 把握하고자 하였다. 北宋朝의 絹織業은 植桑·養蠶 등의 奬□로 擴大되었고 織造術이 簡便하게 發展하면서 農村·都市絹織業도 官營絹織業과 더불어 發達하여 그 種類가 細分化되었다. 絹織物을 크게 分類하면 錦·綾·羅·紬·絹·시 등인데, 錦·綾 등의 高級品은 주로 四川·華北地方에서, 紬·絹 등의 一般品은 주로 江南에서 生産되고 있었다.
高級品을 生産하던 곳은 官營 絹織工廠이었는데, 代表的인 것이 京師에 位置한 綾錦院이었다. 綾錦院에는 戶頭·匠人·女工 등의 技工 1千余名이 賃金勞動者로써 雇傭되어 戶頭-女工 或은 匠人-女工의 組를 形成하여 分業하였으며, 이곳에 備置되어 있던 絲織機 대략 工人의 數와 비슷하였던 것으로 생각된다. 한편 地方의 官營絹織業은 機戶의 專業이 되어, 農家에서는 生絲를 生産하고 機戶는 織造하는 式의 分業이 나타나면서 더욱 發達하였고, 또한 農村絹織業도 이에 따라 發達하였다. 이러한 中央과 地方의 官營絹織業은 모두 大等한 關係에 있었으면서 또한 緊密히 聯結되어 있었다.
絹織物이 國家財政上 約 3分의 1을 차지하자 朝廷에서는 調達方法으로 預買絹·蠶鹽法·折稅絹 등을 實施하였다. 預買絹은 春窮期에 百姓의 高利貸 使用을 禁止시킨다는 名目에서 絹織物을 預買하던 方式이었으나, 神宗朝를 契機로 初期와는 달리 富國强兵策의 方便으로 施行되어 百姓에게 强制로 預買絹을 割當하여주고 利□을 얻고자 하기에 이르렀다. 그밖에도 鹽을 前貸하였다가 蠶絲로 거두던 蠶鹽法이나, 兩稅를 絹織物로 折納하던 折稅絹도 神宗朝를 契機로 그 性格이 變化되면서 一種의 稅로 化하고 말았다.
以上과 같은 絹織物의 調達은 農村·都市絹織業을 剌戟하여 農村의 小生産者와 商人이 緊密한 細帶關係를 맺으면서 北宋朝의 流通經路를 發達하게 하였다. 商人의 活潑한 活動은 國家의 歲入에서 課入의 增加를 가져왔고, 또한 絹織物의 流通을 活潑하게 하여 全課入額의 約 6분의 1을 차지할 程度로 市場이 擴大되었다.
北宋朝의 絹織物의 流通은 官營絹織業에서 機戶들의 公納과 兩稅로서의 絹織物 折稅, 預買絹·蠶鹽法으로서의 調達, 그리고 課入의 納入 등으로 이루어졌는데, 特히 預買絹의 調達時에 分化되지 않은 仲介人으로서의 商人이 介在하면서 그 流通이 活氣를 띄웠다. 이에 따라 官營絹織業의 規模를 凌駕할 程度의 專業戶들이 登場하기에 이르렀으며, 이로써 官營絹織業과 함께 農村·都市絹織業도 專業할 程度로 發達하여 北宋朝의 絹織業이 一定한 軌道에 올랐음을 보여주고 있다.
本稿에서 살펴 본 絹織業의 發達은 宋代의 經濟的 發展의 全般的樣相과 符合되는 일이겠으나 이때 中國 絹織業의 基礎가 確立되었다는 점에서 北宋朝의 絹織業 發達의 歷史的 意義를 찾을 수 있다고 하겠다.;Northern Sung Dynasty was the period of extensive economic growth together with the political stability. Under such socio-economic cirsumstances manufacturing and trade had been developed maintaining close connection with each other. One of the most representative ones revealing such phenomena was the silk craft.
The silk craft, which was being enlarged by the encouragement of the dynasty to plant mulberry trees and to rear silk worms, progressed in the farm villages and cities keeping up with the government-controlled silk craft. At that time, there were various kinds of silk such as chin(錦 : a thin brocade), ling(綾 : a thin silk), lo(羅 : a thin kind of silk), ch'ou(주 : silky thread), chu¨an(絹 : a thin, cheap silk), shih(시 : a silk like a linen), and etc. The top quality silk such as chin and ling were mainly produced still in Szechwan and the northern provinces, the middle quality such as ch'ou and chu¨an in the southern provinces.
The high quality products were woven mainly at the government-controlled weaving factories. The representative one was Ling-chin-yu¨an(綾錦院) in the Capital, where about one thousand skilled artisans including craftsmen(戶頭). artisans (匠人) and female labours(女工) were employed as wage workers. They had their work differentiated organizing craftsman-female labours or artisans-female labours system, and each group was consisted of 3 or 4 members. Considering that each group was supplied 3 or 4 looms, the member of the looms seemed to be fitted to that of the members. In the government-controlled silk craft of the ones, owing to the specialization of silk-weaving families, farming families devoted themselves only to the production of raw silk. Thus not ohly the government-controlled silk craft but the silk craft of farm villages grew accordingly. The silk craft of the capital and the local ones were on the equal terms, and were growing in close connection with each other.
Since silk was occupying one third of the national finance, it was impossible for the government-controlled silk craft alone to supply the demands of the dynasty. As the demands increased the dynasty became more interested in the procurement method of silk. As a result, such methods as Yu¨-mai-chu¨an(預買絹), Ts'an-yen-fa(蠶鹽法), and Che＾-shui-chu¨an(折稅絹) came into being. Yu¨-mai-chu¨an was the method of purchasing silk in advance on the pretext of preventing the people from borrowing interest debt at the season of spring poverty. Yet since Emperor Shen-tsung(神宗), unlike the early stage of operation of that method, the dynasty used it as an expediency of the Fu-kuo thing-ping tse'(富國强兵策 : Rich the nation and strengthen the army) and assigned Yu¨-mai-chu¨an to people by force to gain profits. The nature of the other two methods, such as Ts'an-yen-fa which distributed salt in advance in spring and collected in silk products in autumn, and che＾-shui-chu¨an by which people payed liang-shui(兩稅) in silk products, came to be changed into a kind of tax since Emperor Shen-tsung. Thus those methods imposed another heavy bruden on the people.
Yet stimulated by those procurement methods of silk, farm villages as well as weaving families led their work to specialization. And since small products and dealers in local areas made close connection with each other, the circulating economy of the Northern Sung Dynasty developed extensively. The vigorous activities of dealers highly increased the proportion of customs duties in the national revenue, and the proportion of silk amounted to one sixth of whole revenue collected by the customs duties, supported by the expanding circulation of silk.
The circulation of silk products in the Northern Sung Dynasty was carried out mainly in four ways. The first one was the payment of silk as taxes, liang-shui. Second way was the payment of silk at the government-controlled silk craft. Third one was the procurement of silk products by means of Yu¨-mai-chu¨an and Ts'an-yen-fa, and the fourth way was come out from the payment of revenue by the customs duties. Especially with the activity of go-betweens in the process of procurement of Yu¨-mai-chu¨an, the circulation became animated. As the circulation of silk became active like thus, the family of specialty which almost surpassed the government-controlled silk craft in scale appeared. This means that the silk craft of farm villages and cities got on the firm right lives as well as government-controlled silk craft is that it played a great role in the economic development of the Northern Sung Dynasty and that it became a firm foundation of silk craft in China.
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