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比較神話學的 觀點에서 본 韓國神話의 構造

Title
比較神話學的 觀點에서 본 韓國神話의 構造
Other Titles
(The) Structure of Korean Myth from Comparative Mythological Point of View
Authors
金鍊淑
Issue Date
1977
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Keywords
비교신화학한국신화신화연구건국신화
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Ⅰ. 硏究目的 그 方法 神話硏究를 통해 建國神話 속의 理想國家論을 발견하고 韓國神話를 中心으로한 神話素의 影響關係를 밝히는 것이 本 硏究의 目的이다. 또한 神話 原型批評理論(Archetypal theory)의 前段階로서 韓國의 神話體系 그 原型을 파악하고자 한다. 硏究의 對象이 되는 神話는 北方係 建國神話인 檀君, 朱蒙, 溫祥 神話 등이며 그 硏究 方法論으로는 불란서의 比較神話學者인 Dumezil의 理論을 擇하였다. Ⅱ. 韓國神話와 西歐神話의 同一構造 A. 庶子立國構造와 末子相續構造 韓國 北方系를 建國神話의 共通的 特性인 庶子移住立國構造와 一般的인 西歐神話(희랍, 基督敎 等)의 共通的 特性인 末子相續構造를 연결시켜 創造神話로서의 同一性을 考察한다. B. 太陽神의 支配 人類 최초의 統治者는 天神과 地神의 綜合에서 태어난 太陽神이다. 그의 뛰어난 治力은 바로 그 神聖한 血統에서 由來하는 것이다. 그러한 것을 증명하기 위해 희랍神話와 日本神話에서의 太陽神의 誕生過程을 比較考察한다. 또한 아폴론(희랍神話)과 神農(中國神話)의 多樣한 神的 機能을 比較分析함으로서 太陽神의 本質的인 性格을 밝혀내었다. 그것은 "人類의 生存을 守護하는 神"으로서의 中心神的 性格이다. 韓國神話의 檀君과 朱蒙을 이러한 構造와 연결시켜 比較考察한다 Ⅲ. 스키타이(Scythai)神話와 韓國神話의 同一構造 受容的 影響關係에 있는 神話로서 北方 騎馬民族 中의 一族인 스키타이의 神話와 韓國神話의 構造를 比較한다. A. Dumezil 方法論에 의한 세가지 寶物 印度·유럽語族의 神話特性으로서 理想的 社會構造의 三機能體系를 추출해내었던 Dumezil의 理論에 의해 檀君神話의 三大主役과 高句麗 初代 三王이 얻었던 세가지 寶物, 大武神王의 세가지 寶物, 朱蒙이 만난 三賢人 등의 象徵體系를 分析한다. B. 나르뜨敍事詩와 朱蒙神話의 同一構造 그 外에 北方騎馬民族的 神話特性으로 나타난 여러가지 神話素의 考察로서 스키타이 神話와 朱蒙神話의 同一構造를 分析한다. Ⅳ. 韓國神話와 日本神話의 同一構造 앞서 살펴 본 바와 같은 韓國神話속의 北方騎馬民族的 神話特性이 日本神話에 傳承되어 나타난 바를 考祭한다. A. Dumezil 方法論에 의한 세가지 寶物 「古事記」의 "三種神器"神話에 나타난 세가지 寶物과 大國主神이 얻은 세가지 寶物, 日本神話의 三大主役, 天孫降臨神話에 나타난 部族構成의 象徵體系를 통하여 Dumezil이 추출해내었던 유라시아的 神話特性을 밝힌다. B. 스키타이, 韓國, 日本神話의 同一構造 이란系 王家의 紀元傳說이라고 볼 수 있는 스키타이 神話가 日本 天皇家의 紀元傳說인 日本神話에 그대로 그 構造를 드러내고 있다. 스키타이, 韓國, 日本神話의 構造的 同一性을 神話素의 分類로서 나타낸다. Ⅴ. 結論 여러가지의 古考學的 觀點과 마찬가지로 神話에 있어서도 北方騎馬民族的 特性이 韓國에 傳承되어 高句麗 文化圈을 形成하였고 그것이 다시 日本에 傳承되었다. 이러한 것은 日本 比較神話學界의 南方根源說과는 反對되는 結論이라고 볼 수 있을 것이다.;Ⅰ. The purpose of this study and its method. The purpose of this thesis is to reaveal the concepts of the ideal republic behind the ancient country-foundation myths and to make clear the relations between the influential and the influenced among their mythemes with Korean myths as a main subject. Also I'll manifest the Korean mythical patterns and its archetypes being as a pre-stage to archetypal myth theory. The northern myths such as Dan-kun myth, Ju-mong myth, On-Jo myth, etc, are taken as the matter for this study and a french mythologist, Dume´zil's method is here introduced to apply to. Ⅱ. The common pattern between the Korean myth and the European myth. A. The pattern of an illegitinate-becomes-a country founder And the pattern of the last Son-becomes-a successor. Surveying the pattern of an illegitinate-becomes-a country founder, which is a common characteristic of the northern country-foundation myths in Korea, in comnection with the pattern of the last Son-becomes-a successor, which is a common characteristic of the European myths in general(ex, Greek myth, Christian myth), I try to examine to common quality of the creation myths between them. B. The rule of the Sun-god. The first ruler over human beings was the Sun-god who had sprang from a union between sky-father and earth-mother. His prominent suvereign power is stemmed from the sacred blood itself. In order to intensify it. I comparatively look into the birth-process of the Sun-god in the Japanese myth as well as in the Greek myth. Further, I'll show the essential feature of the Sun-god by anolyzing various funtions of Apollon and she^n-Nung, which is a character of a quardian deity who helps human-beings exist. In relation with such a pattern the Dan-Kun myth and the Jumong myth are surveyed and compared. Ⅲ. The common pattern between Scytian myth and Korean myth. As being in the relation of the influential and the influenced, the scytian myth, as the former, whose race is one of the northern horse riding tribes, and the Korean myth, as the latter, are compared with each other here. A. Three treasures according to Dume´zil's method. According to Dume´zil's method which forms the trisectioned function system of the ideal society structure, which is said to be the characteristic among the myths of the IndoEuropean eanguage families, I explain the symbol systems of the three features in the Dan-kun myth, the three treasures of the first three kings of Ko-Ku-Ryu Denasty, the three treasures of the Great Mu-sin and the three sages Ju-mong met. B. The common pattern between the Scytian myth and the Ju-mong myth. Additionally, the Scytian myth and the Korean myth are analyzed to meet a common pattern. Such a pattern prove to be a character of the northern horseriding tribes' myths. Ⅳ. The common pattern between the Korean myth and the Japanese myth. I survey how much influence the northern horse-riding tribes myths of Korea as mentioned before has over the Japanese myth to form its contents. A. Three treasures according to Dume´zil's method. By viewing the systems of the three treasures of the myth three kinds of racred utensils in the book Go-Sa-Gi, the three treasures of the of the Dae-Kuk-Ju-Shin, the Sam-Dae-Ju-Shin, in the Japanese myth and the organization of tribal society in the myth, the advent of Heaven's descendant. I make clear the basic characteristic of the Eurasian myths Dume´zil has introduced. B. The common pattern between the Scytian myth, the Korean myth and the Japanese myth. The pattern of the scytian myth, which may well be regarded as the story of the origin of the Iranian Royal family, could be also found in the Japanese myth of the origin of the Japanese royal family. I show the identity among the three myths in classifying their mythemes. Ⅴ. Conclusions. As the same with the archaevlogical point of view, from mythological point of view, too the northern horse-riding tribes' Droperty is moved not only into Korea to form the Ko-Ku-Ryuian culture area but also into Japan by way of Korea. This differs from the claim of the Japanese comparative mythologists: They insist on the theory of the origin from the Southern.
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