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港灣都市의 成長과 內部構造에 관한 硏究

Title
港灣都市의 成長과 內部構造에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON CITYPORT'S DEVELOPMENT AND SPATIAL STRUCTURE : A CASE STUDY OF PUSAN
Authors
鄭晶仁
Issue Date
1990
Department/Major
대학원 사회생활학과
Keywords
항만도시항만내부구조도시사회학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
港灣都市에 있어, 港灣은 機能的·空間的要素로서, 都市의 經濟 및 構造와 밀접한 연관을 맺으면서 都市의 形成·發達에 영향을 미친다. 釜山의 경우, 地理的 환경을 바탕으로 歷史的 발달과정에서 港灣都市로 형성, 咸長의 기반을 갖추었으며, 이는 계속 發展의 慣性을 나타내면서, 港灣機能의 集積으로 인한 經濟咸長을 유도, 현재 제1의 港灣都市로서의 지위를 지니게 되었다. 이러한 港灣機能은 空間的 실체로서, 都市機能과 연계되면서 都市內部構造에 투영되는 바, 연구과정에 따른 내용은 다음 3가지로 요약될 수 있다. 첫째, 釜山의 港灣都市로서의 形成 및 成長은, 日本에 의해 최초의 開港場으로 선정됨에 따라 그 기틀이 마련되었다. 과거, 조선시대 釜山의 中心은 행정·군사點으로 港灣施設을 갖추어가는 동시에 근대적 시설을 도입하여, 植民地 港口都市로서의 이질적인 內部構造를 형성하였다. 둘째, 釜山의 港灣都市로서의 기초가 日本에 의한 開港 및 植民地統治와 같은 非自生的 要因에 의해 이루어져, 그 內部構造상의 二重性을 안고 출발하였지만, 港灣機能은 분명히 釜山을 港灣都市로서 特化하는 것과 함께, 고용의 창출원으로서, 都市經濟와 구조적 연관을 맺으면서, 都市成長의 原動力이 되었다. 실제로 초기 釜山의 經濟的 地位 부상은 수송적 환지로서의 港灣의 특성과 관련된 港灣機能의 蓄積과 밀접한 관련을 지니고 있었다. 그러나 釜山이 巨大都市로 발달한 후에는, 港灣機能에 대한 經濟的 의존성은 낮아지고, 오히려 大都市가 가지는 集積 및 規模經濟로 인한 도시자체의 推進力으로 성장하는 특징을 나타내었다. 세째, 釜山의 地理的·歷史的 배경으로 인한 港灣都市로서의 形成 및 發展과, 港灣機能의 集積은, 공간상에 투영, 都市構造상에 반영된다. 港灣과 都市關聯 變數를 이용한 要因分析에 따르면, 해운 및 항만운송부대업, 선박건조 및 부속품제조업, 그리고 컨테이너회사등이 각각의 要因로서 독특한 공간分布를 나타내었는데, 대부분의 港灣關聯機能이 中心으로부터 逆相關關係를 지닌다든지, 또는 地價와 인구밀도가 높은 곳에 입지하는 것으로 표면화되면서, 이러한 機能들이 都市中心部에 集積, C. B. D.기능의 일부를 구성하는, 港灣都市에서의 독특한 內部構造의 一面을 파악해낼 수 있었다.;The port as funtional and spatial element impacts on the formation and development of city, being connection with structure and economy of city. This study has been brought to examine a linkage between port growth and urban expansion in a geographical context, and the growth of Pusan, cityport, is fundamentally illustrated by 3 levels. First, the formation and development of cityport is essentially due to the direct influence of any inherent qualities of site, situation and history. Pusan was opened in 1886 as a result of the treaty port between Korea and Japan, and began to develop as a major cityport. In Chosun dynasty, the core region was Tongnae which was center for local administration and military. But at the dawn of modern age, the former administrative town declined, while Pusan-po, a small prior fishery settlement was developed as leading commercial foreign trade and new administrative town on the basis of Japanese Concession. Consequently, Pusan acquired duplicated spatial characteristics as a colony seaport. Scecond, in a previous context, spatial structure of modern cityport, Pusan, owes much to its histroical antecedents certainly, but also important are the combined effects over time of economic factor in proportion to accumulation of port's function. The economy of cityport is important sphere in which the interactions of port funtions and urban growth may be observed. Undoubtedly, port as growth-centers is a provider of jobs and a generator of business and personal incomes, therefore, in Pusan the provision of port facilities was necessary precondition of modern economic growth and the progress of development, paticularlly in its earliear stage. The traditionally close dependence of cityport eoconomy upon the port function has been modified in recent years : the larger urban center grows, the higher the rate of urban-based employment increases, so that the wider scales of modern cityport development imply a far greater degree of independence between port and city, eventually urban economy reaches a stage of self-sustaining growth. Third, here the real issue may well be the impact of port function on structure and function of city. Correlation of function and spatial aspect between port and city is analyzed by factor analysis. The outcome sums up in 2 points ; one is in the functional phase which most of port-related industry(shipping business, cargo working etc.) is connected with Transport and Warehousing, the other is taken out in the spatial aspect, namely transportation is to C. B. D. what port is to C. B. D., which. indicates that the coexistence of port and C. B. D. on a primitive site involved maximum interdependence. The port district that dominate peak land value intersection(PLVI) and the highest population density represents the focal point of the city as a whole. So it can be induced that a port district comes to form a part of C. B. D or it comes to lie adjacent to C. B. D. However, the more complex city becomes, the greater the number of activities which must be provided for spatial needs. The symbiosis between port and city began to disappear and turn into confrontation. Consequently, it is anticipated that spatial characteristics of port city will be allocated as what reveal a city estranged from its port. Today Korea is deeply concerned with the maintenance and improvement of internatioal economic and political relationships, and in this situation overseas trading links through seaports are vital. After all, in this point of view how to keep Pusan in indispensable function as a port while in the favourable interaction and external eonomies between the port and the rest of the city will be central issue.
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