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J. S. Bruner 敎育課程理論 考察

Title
J. S. Bruner 敎育課程理論 考察
Other Titles
(A) STUDY OF BRUNER'S CURRICULUM THEORY
Authors
朴惠媛.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
대학원 교육학과
Keywords
J. S. Bruner교육과정이론교육학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究의 目的은 知識構造論을 중심으로 하는 Bruner敎育課程 理論을 고찰해 봄으로써, 그 特性 및 問題點을 살펴보는데 있다. 1) 硏究領域 ① 知識構造論의 歷史的 背景 ② 知識構造論과 敎育課程 ③ Bruner敎育課程理論에 대한 批判 2) 硏究方法 本 硏究는 文獻硏究로 分析의 視點은, Bruner의 知識構造論을 敎育課程의 目標·內容·方法의 要素에 적용시킴으로써, Bruner의 知識構造論을 敎育課程理論 上으로 고찰한다. 3) 硏究의 結果 ① 知識構造論은 構造主義, 認知理論, 소련의 Sputink발사에 따라 社會問題로 등장한 知識敎育의 부할, 그에 따른 새로운 敎科 組織의 필요성에 의해 등장하였다. ② Bruner의 知識構造論을 敎育課程의 目標·內容·方法의 要素에 관련시켜보면 다음과 같은 結論을 얻을 수 있다. 가. 敎育目標는, 內的動機誘發과 敎科學習의 相互性에 의한 知性開發로 볼 수 있다. 이것은 Piaget의 認知構造 發達에 대한 內的動機說과 知性訓練·培蠶을 敎育目約으로 하는 案在論의 敎育理論(本質主義·허위주의) 特性을 통합한 것이라 할 수 있다. 나. 分科學問을 敎育內容으로 선정하는 것은, 實在論의 敎育理論을 배경으로하는 敎科型 敎育課程의 敎科와 유사하다고 볼 수 있다. 다. 그러나 思考力 형성을 위해 탐구·발견형태의 知識獲得의 過程을 敎科에 통합시키고 있다. 知識의 基本原理에 대한 構造的 探究 및 發見에 의한 學習은, 構造主義的 學間探究法, 事象에 대한 構造的 접근을 學習에 도입한 Gestalt理論의 적용과 함께, 演繹約·□納的 學問探究方法을 강조한 科學的 實在論의 面. 특히 그 영향을 받은 Dewey의 問題解決 學習의 方法 面을 통합하고 있는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 知力에 의한 問題解決이란 進步主義의 經驗型 敎育課程에서 중심을 이룬다. 라. Bruner는 敎育課程 士에서, 敎科型 敎育課程의 敎科라는 內容과 經驗型 敎育課程의 問題解決學習이라는 方法을 통합시켜 學問型(分科型) 敎育課程을 형성하게 되었다. ③ Bruner敎育課程理論의 問題點 및 批判 가. 目標를 知性開發에 둘때, 認知的인 面의 치중으로 情意的인 面이 경시될 우려가 있다. 나. 內容인 敎料를 分料學問으로 하여, 學校敎育을 敎科學習(學問探究)에 국한할 때, 兒童의 慾求·經驗 등의 과소평가, 生活과 敎育과의 適切性 결여의 問題가 생진다 다. 方法인 發見 및 이끌 수 있는 探究學習은 時間의 經濟面·學習을 효율적으로 이끌 수 있는 교사양성·敎師-學生의 지적성숙도의 차이 등의 面에서, 절대적인 敎授-學習方法은 될 수 없다. 라. 이에따라, 특히. 學問의 融合, 敎戮敎育과 職業敎育의 병행, 潛在的 敎靑課程 등이 강조되기 시작했다. Bruner도 자신의 理論을 재검토하고, 敎育과 社會問題의 關係에 관심을 기우리게 되었다. ④ 그러므로 學校에서 배우는 敎科는 制度的으로는 平等主義 個人的으로는 能力主義로 편성·조직되어 祉會問題 解決을 위해 理 論과 實踐的 方法을 제공할 수 있게 되어야 할 것이다.;The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and problems of Bruner's Curriculum theory. 1. The study areas were; 1) the historical background of Bruner's curriculum theory. 2) analysis of Burner's notion on the structure of knowledge in terms of objective, content, and teaching-learning method. 3) the criticism on Bruner's curriculum theory in regard to curriculum elements. 2. The results of the study were as follows; 1) The theory of knowledge structure has appeared by the influence of structualism, cognitive theory, the resurgence of knowledge centered education occurred as a social problem due to Sputnik shock, and the requirement of reorganization and replacement of subject matters. 2) When the structure of knowledge was connected with curriculum elements, the results were as follows; a) The objective is intellectual development through the interrelation between the learning of subject matters and intrinsic motivation. This seems to be the integration of the properties of piaget's theory on motivation from within and educational theory of Realism(Essentialism and Perennialism) which aims at intellectual discipline by liberal education. b) The content is organized with subject matters. The subject matters are similar to those of subject centered curriculum with educational theory of Realism as a theoretical background. c) The subject matters include the acquisition process of knowledge by an inquiry or a discovery method. It seems that the acquisition process of knowledge here corresponds to the problem solving learning. The learning is progressed by the structural inquiry or discovery teaching method. This applies the disciplined inquiry method of structualism, Gestalt theory which introduced the structural approach of phenomena to learning process, and the property of scientific Realism which emphasizes inductive and deductive method of studies of science, especially, Dewey's problem solving learning which is influenced by scientific Realism as the aspect of methods. The problem solving learning by intellect is the core of the experience centered curriculum of progressivism, d) Burner established theoretical foundation for the construction of discipline centered curriculum by integrating subject matlers of the subject centered curriculum as the content, and problem solving learning of the experience centered anniculum as the method. 3) The problems and criticism of Bruner's curriculum theory were as follows; a) Because the objective is intellectual development, it is worried over the neglect of the affective aspect. b) As school learning is limited to the teaching and learning of subject matters as the content, it is easy to occur problems such as the underevaluation of needs and experience of children and the lack of relevancy between education and life. c) The discovery or inquiry method can not be the absolute teaching-learning method due to the negative aspects such as the requirement of much time, the training for efficient teachers, and the difference of intellectual maturation between teachers and children. d) Accordingly, it has begun to stress the integration of disciplines, the harmony between general education and vocational education, and the latent curriculum. Bruner has reexamined his theory and has become to be concerned about the relation of education and social problems, and the relevance between education and life. 4) Consequently, the organization of subject matters must be based on equalitarianism in social or school systems and the principle of ability in individual condition, so that they have to offer theory and practical method for the solution of social problems.
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