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- 韓國佛像光背의 樣式硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on Changes in Styles of Korean Cakra
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- 대학원 사학과
- 불상광배; 양식연구; 불상; 불상형식
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 光背는 佛·菩薩의 胴體로부터 나오는 丈光相에 佛·菩薩의 신비성을 强調하고, 그 곳에 紋樣을 添加하여 장식적인면을 과장하기 위하여 회화나 조각에서 具體的인 形態로 表現한 佛像의 一樣式으로, 本意는 色光 智慧光을 나타내는 것이다. 그러나 光背는 印度에서 發生된 以來 中國을 거쳐 우리나라에 전해 오는 동안 時代의 流行이나 敎義의 發達에 따라 점차 莊嚴具와 같은 格음 띄게 되어 形形色色의 여러 種類가 나오고 있으나 모든 光背는 光身部만으로 構成된 것과 光身部와 光綠部(外綠部)로 構成된 것으로 大別할 수 있다.
光背의 形式은 먼저 頭光만으로 光身部를 이룬 것과, 頭光·身光이 合致된 擧身光이 光身部를 이룬 것으로 나누었고, 다시 頭光은 円光과 光綠部를 나타낸 寶珠光으로, 擧身光은 二重輪光과 光綠部를 나타낸 舟形光으로 나누었다. 그 중 舟形光은 형태에 따라 原始的인 型式인 古式舟形光과 우리나라에서 가장 흔히 볼 수 있는 典型舟形光으로 나누고, 典型舟形光은 頭光과 身光이 나뉘어지는 지점을 外周에 굴곡으로 나타낸 典型舟形光Ⅰ과 그렇지 않은 典型舟形光Ⅱ로 나누어 敍述하였다. 이러한 光背의 형식은 시대에 따라 樣相이 변하고 있는데 三國期는 모든 形式의 전성기로 典型舟形光Ⅰ 및 Ⅱ와 二重輪光이 새로이 登場하고 古式舟形光은 사라지며, 高麗期는 形式化된 衰退期로 새로운 登場은 없고 寶珠光, 二重輪光이 사리지고 있다.
또한 光背에 表現된 主題는 蓮華紋, 唐草紋, 寶相華紋, 花紋, 連珠紋, 雲紋, 火焰紋, 化佛, 飛天 等으로 나누어 살펴 보았는데,그 중 各 時代에 따라 樣相이 裵遷하는 蓮華紋, 唐草紋, 火焰紋은 形式에 따라 分類했고 그 밖의 寶相華紋, 花紋, 連珠紋, 雲紋, 化佛, 飛天 등은 배치된 위치에 따라 分類했다. 먼저 蓮華紋은 蓮華形式에 따라 無紋單辨, 有紋單辨, 復辨으로 나누고, 그 중 有紋單辨은 輪廓線을 두른 것과 花紋을 배치한 것으로 나누었으며, 唐草紋은 波狀形, S字形, 사슬形, 變形, 寶相華紋과 合成된 形으로 나누었고, 火焰紋은 平行하는 가느다란 線을 겹쳐서 表現한 가Ⅰ과, 平行하는 가느다란 線과 線사이에 빈 곳을 마련한 가Ⅱ와 사선을 드문드문 배열한 가Ⅲ와 S字形, C字 倒置形, 고사리형과 특이양식으로 나누어 敍述하였다.
各 主題中 蓮華紋, 唐草紋, 花紋, 火焰紋, 化佛은 全時代에 걸쳐 있고 連珠紋, 飛天은 統一初期 以後에, 寶相華紋, 雲紋은 統一中期以後에 登場하고 있다.
円光을 除外한 대부분의 光背는 紋樣이 배치되는 위치에 따라 內區 中區, 外區로 나눌 수 있는데 內區에는 蓮華紋을, 中區에는 唐草紋, 寶相華紋을, 外區에는 雲紋, 火焰紋, 飛天 등을 배치하는 것이 通式이다.
各 時代에 표현된 形式과 主題를 살펴 봄으로써 다음과 같은 결론을 얻을 수 있었다.
우선 全時作에 걸쳐 볼 수 있는 形式은 円光뿐이고, 主題는 花紋과 化佛 및 蓮華紋 中 無紋單辨形式과, 火焰紋 中 C字倒置形이다.
1 .三國時代에는 形式 中에는 円光, 寶珠光, 古式舟形光이 登場하고 主題 中에는 蓮華紋 中 無紋單辨形式 및 有紋單辨形式 中 輪廊線으로 장식한 것과, 唐草紋 中 波狀形과, 火焰紋 中 가Ⅰ, 가Ⅱl形式 및 S字形과, 花紋, 化佛이 表現되었다.
2. 統一新羅時代에는 形式 中 古式舟形光은 사라지고, 典型舟形光Ⅰ 및 典型舟形光Ⅱ와 二重輪光이 새로이 등장하고, 主題에 있어서도 連珠紋과 飛天은 初期에, 寶相華紋과 雲紋은 中期에 새로이 둥장하며, 蓮華紋 中 花紋을 배치한 有紋單辨形式 및 複辨形式과 火焰紋 中 가Ⅲ形式 및 고사리形이 表現되고 가Ⅱ形式은 사라진다.
3 .高麗時代에는 새로운 등장은 없고 統一期의 形式과 主題를 계승하였으나 전성기때 모습은 사라지고 다만 退化된 양식을 보여 주고 있다. 즉 形式 中 寶珠光, 二重輪光은 사라지고 典型舟形光Ⅰ은 寶珠形으로 退化하고 있고, 主題에 있어서 火焰紋 中 가Ⅰ形式은 사라지고 蓮華紋 中 無紋單辨形式이 細辨으로, 火焰紋 中 C字倒置形의 꼬리가 거의 直線形으로 退化하고 있다.;Cakra is one style of Buddhist statue expressed by a concrete from in the field of pictures or sculptures in order to put emphasis on the mystery of Buddha-Bodhisattva in the Chang-Kwang aspect (the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body")arising from it and magnify the decorative aspect by inserting the pattern. And it's original purpose is in the expression of the physical light and knowledge-wisdom light. While Cakra has been transmitted to our conutry via China since having occured at India, it has become to have a character as solemnity instrument in accordance with the fashion of the times and development of a doctrine and various kinds of Cakras have appeared. But all kinds of Cakra can be roughly classified into two groups: one is only composed of the inside of light part, and the other is composed of the inside and outside of light part.
Forms of Cakra are, in the first place, classified into what are the inside of light part consitituted by only a nimbus round the head and by nimbus round the head and a nimbus round the body joined together. A nimbus round the head is, in the next place, divided into the Circle shaped light and the Precious pearl light presenting the outside of light part, and a nimbus round the head and a nimbus round the body joined together is divided into the Dual wheel shaped light and the ship shaped light presenting the outside of light part. Among them, the ship shaped light is divided into the Classical and Typical one according to the form: the former is primitive and the latter is most commonly seen in our country. And Typical ship shaped light is divided into type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ: in type Ⅰ, the point which separates a nimbus round the head from a nimbus round the body is presented by curve in the circumference and in type Ⅱ, it is not. Such a form of Cakra has been charged with times. In the Three Kingdoms Period as the primitive period, relatively a simple Circle shaped light, Precious pearl light and Classical ship shaped light appeared. In the Great Silla Dynasty as the golden age, Typical ship shaped light type Ⅰ and Ⅱ and Dual wheel shaped light newly appeared, but Classical ship shaped light disappeared. In the Koryo Dynasty as the period of decadence, there was no newer appearance as they were formalized. And the Precious pearl light and Dual wheel shaped light disappeared.
Summarized classification of forms in Cakra as follows:
constituted by only a nimbus round the head
Circle shaped light
Precious pearl light
constituted by a nimbus round the head and a nimbus
round the body joined together
Dual wheal shaped light
ship shaped light
Classical ship shaped light
Typical ship shaped light Ⅰ
Typical ship shaped light Ⅱ
And I look about the themes expressed in Cakra as follows divided: lotus flower pattern, connected bead pattern, cloud pattern, flame pattern, metamorphosed Buddha, Devas and man, etc. Among them, lotus flower pattern, aravesque, flame pattern, whose style are changed with each times are classified according to the from. For the rest, palmstte, flower pattern, connected bead pattern, cloud pattern, metamorphosed Buddha, and Devas and man are classified by the arranged position.
And they are further classified as follows:
lotus flower pattern
non-decorative single petals
decorative single petals
what are encircled by a skelecton line
what are arranged by the flower pattern
mixed with palmette form
ka Ⅰ form: what is heaped by the paralleled fine line
ka Ⅱ form: what are prepared by a space between the paralleled fine line
ka Ⅲ form: what are sparsely arranged by an oblique line s-shaped form
inverted c-shaped form
fern like form
Of each themes, the lotus flower pattern, arabesque, flower pattern, flame pattern and metamorphosed Buddha cover all ages. The connected bead pattern and Devas and man appeared after the early period of the Great Silla Dynasty, and the palmette and cloud pattern did after the middle age of the Great Sille Dynasty.
Except the Circle shaped light, most of Cakras are divided into inner, middle and outer zone by the position where the pattern are arrange. It is a usual form that the lotus flower pattern is arranged in the inner zone, arabesque is in the middle zone, and the cloud pattern, flame pattern and Devas and man are in the outer zone.
By looking about the forms and themes at each ages, I can come to a conclusion as follows. To begin with, the form which covers all ages is only the Circle shaped light. The themes which do also are the flower pattern, metamorphosed Buddha, non-decorative single petals form in the lotus flower pattern, inverted c-shaped form in the flame pattern.
1. The Three Kingdoms Period
Of forms : the Circle shaped light, Precious pearl light and Classical ship shaped light appeared.
Of themes: the devorative single petals form decorated by a skeleton line and non-decorated single petals form in the loarabesque, ka Ⅰ, ka Ⅱ and s-shaped form in the flame pattern, flower pattern, flower pattern and metamorphosed Buddha were expressed.
2. The Great Silla Dynasty period
Of forms : Classical ship shaped light disappeared, and Typical ship shaped light type Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Dual wheeal shaped light appeared newly.
Of themes : The connected bead pattern and Devas and man appeared in the early period, and the palmette and cloud pattern did in the middle age. The decorative single petals arranged by flower pattern and double petals in the lotus flower pattern, and ka Ⅲ and fern like form were expressed and ka Ⅱ form disappeared in the flame pattern.
3. The Koryo Dynasty period
There was no newer appearance. Though they succeeded to the form and theme in the Great Silla Dynasty, they losed the aspect in the golden age and merely showed the retrograded style.
Of forms: The Precious pearl light and Dual wheel shaped light disappeared, and the Typical ship shaped light type Ⅰ retrograded to the precious pearl style.
Of themes : ka Ⅰ form in the flame pattern disappeared, and non-decorative single petals form in the lotus flower pattern retrograded to the fine petals. Also the fail of inverted c-shaped form in the flame pattern did to the straight line.
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