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業績評價의 過程的 接近法에 관한 硏究

業績評價의 過程的 接近法에 관한 硏究
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대학원 경영학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
최근 인사고과 분야에서는 평가의 질을 높이기 위한 노력으로서 사회인지 심리학에 이론적 기초를 둔 업적평가에 관한 과정연구의 중요성이 크게 대두되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 업적평가 과정 접근법에 기초하여 평가과정에 영향을 미치는 평가상황 변수인 평가목적과 피평가자의 성과수준이 평가의 정확성에 미치는 효과와, 이때 평가자의 기질적 요소인 인지적 범주화와 정서가 업적평가 과정에 미치는 영향에 관해 알아 보고자 한다. 이를 통해서 평가의 질을 떨어뜨리는 근본원인을 밝혀보는데 본 연구의 목적이 있다. 실증연구 방법으로는 평가목적과 성과수준을 독립변수로 하는 집단간 요인설계에 의한 실험계획법을 사용하였다. 분석방법으로는 독립변수인 평가목적과 성과수준이 평가의 정확성에 미치는 영향에 관해 알아보기 위해서 2 요인 변량분석 (two-way ANOVA)을 사용하였다. 또한 조절변수인 평가자의 정서와 인지적 범주화가 평가과정에 미치는 효과에 관해 알아보기 위해서 이 두 변수를 공변량으로 한 공분산 분석(analysis of covariance)을 실시하였다. 연구 결과, 업적평가 과정에서 피평가자의 성과수준과 평가목적이라는 상황적인 요소뿐 만 아니라 평가자 자신의 인지적 요소가 평가의 정확성에 유의적인 영항을 미친다는 사실이 밝혀졌다. 이를 통해서, 인사고과 분야에서 보다 객관적이고 정확한 평가를 얻기위해서는 평가양식의 개발이나 고과자 훈련과 함께 업적평가 과정 자체에도 주의를 기울여야할 필요성이 입증되었다.;Some recent research in personnel decisions has been concerned with the "process approach" to performance appraisal of which the constructs and theoretical frameworks offered by social cognitive psychology. The pursuit of this approach is to improve the quality of performance appraisal. This research on performance appraisal processes has attempted to study the effect of cognitive information processing of a rater, besides affective and situational factors (eg. purpose of rating or performance level of a ratee, etc..) on rating accuracy. However, little research has focused on the empirical studies about simultaneously two variables : the influence of both dispositional factor of a rater and situational factor on rating accuracy. Thus, the overall purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of two situational variables, such as purpose of rating and performance level of a ratee on rating accuracy, and the influence of cognitive categorization and everyday mood-life of a rater on performance appraisal process. To explore this research purpose, the experimental study was used. The overall design of this experiment was a 2×3 between subject factorial desigrl with manipulations of two independent variables : purpose of rating and performance level of a ratee. Purpose of rating was manipulated into two conditions : research purpose vs. administrative purpose. Performance level of a ratee was for the purpose of variable manipulation divided into three levels: high, middle, and low. The experiment was performed under the situation of the fictitious lecture, served as the rating stimulus in this study. Subjects participating in the present study were 180 from senior high school students. They were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment conditions in a two (purpose of rating) by three (performance level) design. The overall experimental design was imbedded in the in-basket exercise, specifically developed for this study. Such a medium, in-basket exercise would permit data collection with minimum interference with subjects' processing of information. The maior findings were summarized as follows : First, the effect of the performance level of a ratee on rating accuracy were lower on the middle level than on the extremely high or low level of performance. Second, the effect of the rating purpose on rating accuracy were lower under the administrative purpose than in the reserach purpose. The administrative purpose of rating served in this study means the situation that raters' ratings would have considerable impact on future personnel decisions of a ratee. Third, the interaction effect of rating purpose with performance level on rating accuracy was significant. The rating accuracy showed on the middle level was lower than on the extreme level of performance under research purpose. On the other hand, the lower the performance level was, the lower the rating accuracy became, under administrative purpose. Thus, under administrative purpose of rating, this results indicate that rater's information processing was more influenced by rater's psychological pressure from the purpose of rating rather than performance level. Fourth, the effect of mood-state of a rater on the information processing didn't show any significance. The reason of these results may rest on the differences of operational definitions of mood-state between the previous research and this study. Finally, the effect of the cognitive categorization of a rater on performance appraisal processes was significant. Follow-up analysis on this result showed the negative correlation between cognitive categorization and rating accuracy, but the degree of this correlation was low. Overall, these results empirically indicate that the rating accuracy was influenced by cognitive variable of a rater as well as situational factors. Moreover, the results of this study was suggests the fact that the personnel managers should give attention to the performance appraisal process, itself as well as the improvement of the rating format and rater training in order to obtain more objective and accurare ratings.
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