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許蘭雪軒작품에 나타난 페미니스트 의식 연구

Title
許蘭雪軒작품에 나타난 페미니스트 의식 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on Feministic Consciousness Appeared in the Works of Ho Nansolhon
Authors
車玉德.
Issue Date
1986
Department/Major
대학원 여성학과
Keywords
페미니스트페미니즘여성학허난설헌
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
우리 사회에서 문학작품의 내용분석이나 작가에 관한 연구를 할 때 대부분 남성들의 관심 영역이나 고정관념적인 국면에서만 편파적인 기준을 두거나 해석, 평가함으로써 여성 작품이나 여성작가 평가에 있어 한계가 있으며 왜곡되고 성차별적이다. 그러한 문학적 성차별주의에 의해 남성적 기준에서 높게 평가하는 문학의 주제를 벗어난 영역을 다룰 수 있는 여성작가의 작품이나 작가의식은 무시되거나 배제되고, 여성작가는 '문제아적인 요소'를 지닌 여성으로 쉽게 간과해버린다. 그러므로 이 연구의 목적은 한국문학사를 통해 가장 문제아적인 여성으로 지적되기도 한 여성작가의 작품분석을 페미니스트적 의식을 검증하는 관점에서 작가의식 연구를 택하여 그 여성작가와 문학의 근본적이고 중요시한 본질적인 주제나 문제의식이 무엇이었는지를 밝혀 봄으로써 여성작가의 가치와 의식을 재조명해 보고자 하였다. 이에 16세기의 문제의 여성작가라는 許蘭雪軒의 작품과 기존의 연구들을 참고로 살펴 본 결과 작품들에서 거의 공통적인 주제로 부각되는 점은 페미니스트적인 의식의 발현이었다. 그리하여 난설헌의 작품에 나타난 여성의식별로 작품을 류형화하여 페미니스트적 의식의 5류형과 대비 분석하였다. 첫째는, '我' 字류의 詩들인 <遣興三, 六, 七, 八>, <望仙謠>, <感遇一, 四>,<江南曲二> 등에서 페미니스트로서 출발하는 의식화의 첫 단계인 여성 중심적 시각에서의 女性의 自我를 인식함이 나타난다. 둘째는, 자신이 三恨라고 지적한 점들이 나타나 있는 詩들인 <少年行>, <閨怨>, <次孫內翰北里韻>, <洞仙謠>등에서 페미니스트와 女性學의 근본적 전제가 되고 있는 개인적 차원에서의 女性問題를 구조적 수준까지 파악함이 나타난다. 셋째, 난설헌의 인간적이고 성실하며 뛰어난 감수성으로 남편에 대한 애정자각에 의한 全人的 사랑의 감정을 표출한 <步虛詞>, <想逢行一, 二>, <竹枝詞>, <四陵行一, 二> 등의 詩에서, 난설헌이 지니고 있는 女性中心的 性(結婚)에 대한 의식이 나타난다. 넷째, 사회와 정치와 전쟁 등에 관계된 <築城怨一, 二>, <送荷谷謫甲山>, <出塞曲一, 二> 등에서는 女性도 公的영역에의 관심과 참여 가능한 능력과, 역할을 할 수 있는 존재로서의 여성인식이 드러난다. 다섯째, 계층을 망라한 여성에 대한 여성의 입장에서의 관심과 이해를 나타낸 <貧女吟>, <靑樓曲>, <寄女佯>, <宮詞> 등에서는 페미니스트들의 근원적 힘의 원천일수도 있고, 중요한 요소인 여성 공동체적 유대감의 의식이 정확히 나타난다. 이러한 난설헌 문학이 페미니스트적 요소가 않다는 분석결과와, 난설헌이 분명 16세기의 한국전통사회의 여성임이 역사적 사실에 근거한 것임에 의해 페미니스트적 의식도 기존의 한국 전통적 여성상 확립과 지적에선-지금까진 눌려 두려고 해 왔으나-, 또 다른 각도에서 본 한국 여성의 전통의식 중 한 흐름으로 볼 수 있다는 결론을 유도해 내었다. 이와 같은 연구의 의의는 첫째, 여성작가 許蘭雪軒의 작품 및 여성의식 해석에 있어 페미니스트적이라는 기존 연구들이 가설로 제시한 것을 검증하거나 더 구체적으로 파악해 본 점이다. 둘째는 그를 통하여 한국에도 16세기에 이미 페미니스트적이라 할 수 있는 여성의식이 존재했었다는 점을 증명한 것이다. 그를 통하여 현대 한국의 여성문제에 관심을 둔 연구자들의 학문적 입장이, 한국전통사회의 또 하나의 시각에서 본 여성문제나 여성의식에 뿌리를 두고 있다는 점의 발견이다. 셋째, 앞으로 한국여성의 전통상에 대한 많은 여성학적 연구들을 보충하여야겠지만, 한국여성의 전통상에 대해 또 다른 시각에서의 발굴을 해냄으로써, 현대 한국의 여성상 형성이 전통적 여성상의 부정이나 단절에 의해서만 가능하지 않고, 새로운 형태로 계승할 수 있는 여성상을 발굴해 낼 수 있다는 점이다.;In our society, when one analyze and evaluate women's literary works and women writers, they often find their own limitations and reflect sexism in doing so. It was because they are is apt to deal with only men's interesting area or interprete and evaluate stereotyped aspects in literary works and easily evaluated, who do not take the themes highly evaluated by men writers' criteria, as "problematic" women. At this juncture, the purpose of this study is to choose literary works written by a woman writer who has been known as a "problematic woman" in the Literary History of Korea and to study her consciousness as a writer, and to reveal what was the fundamental and important theme of her works. For this purpose, I selected Ho Nansolhon and her works, who lived in the sixteenth century when the patriarchal features came to be gradually settled down in the Korean society. At first, I analyze the works of Ho Nansolhon and existing articles publications dealt with her. As a result of this preliminary study, I could draw a common theme from her works: it was the expression of realization as a woman. therefore I applied her consciousness in the five categories of feminist consciousness: that is, understanding of women's self-consciousness, recognition of women's problems, women-centered realization of sexuality(marriage), recognition of existence of a woman as a subject of social changes, and the consciousness of communal belongingness among women, and others. these feministic consciousness was concretrly examined in her through the analyses of her works. Furthermore, how the feministic consciousness affected and how they connected to a woman's life were also studied, who were living with the idea of self-realization with the subjectivity as an existential human being in the sixteenth century when the oppression on women began to accelerate. Traditionally ultruistic women who concealed her ideas and emotions under the surface was a happy woman. This was an ideology fixed and predetermined by men-centric value. But in contrast, when a woman tried to live and act with a consciousness of subjectivity and attitude as a human being with her own personality, she has been thought as a unhappy woman, emphasizing her conflict and suffer faced in her present life. Therefore, when a woman wanted to live with the dignity of a human being, though she recognized fully problems in life, understanding of conflicts raised in the practical life, the goals of her life were considered as altruistic, self actualizing and the best style of life which can utmostly enjoy humanistic realization and freedom. Thus, I studied how the consciousness of Ho Nansolhon, which could be considered as a feminist perspective, influenced on her self-actualization and how it related each other. In doing so, I used the scale of self-actualization which was modified to be suitable to the standard of Korean culture by Kim Jae Eun and Lee Kwang-Ja, which was originally devised by Shostrom in the U.S. for a personality test. However, Kim Jae-Eun and Lee Kwang-Ja's measurement did not cover the oppressed women groups and their members like the tendency of most existing psychological researches. Therefore, up to the present the measurement for women's self-actualization was used with slightly modification of the existing scale. The feminist scale shows women's actualization who are in the position of the ruled class until now. And a scale which measure how much one is good or not was added by how to determine the sex-differentiation. In addition, the existing scales almost disregarded the conception of women's "self" and not dealt with a discussion topic theoretically about women's self-consciousness because women were forced/expected to lead their lives for others. But in this study, women's "self" concept was divided into "psychological self", "social self", "sexual self". As a result, the scale of women self-actualization modified with the consideration of women's conditions was adopted to the analysis and comparison of five literary works with could be categorized as feministic works. By doing so, I adopted this feministic consciousness of Ho Nansolhon as the frame of criteria for this paper. According to the analysis, the results may be summarized as follows: First, the literary works in Korea revealed women's oppression were "Kyuwon(閨怨)", "Chonghan' ilgang (情恨一壘)", "Ch'ason'naehanbuklium(次孫內翰北里韻)", "Tongsonyo(洞仙謠)", "Sasisa(四詩詞) "Ch'unch'u(春秋)", "Ogao(漁家倣)", "Kyuwonga(규원가)", etc. The feministic consciousness appeared in these works could be a source of challenge established for the scale of women's actualization. Secondly, women's "self" consciousness could see in the works of "Kamu(感遇) 1, 4", "Kyunhung(遣興) 3, 6, 7, 8", "Kangnamgok(江南曲) 2", "Mangsonyo(望仙謠)", etc. These feministic consciousness was a source of self-actualization, self-positiveness and self-sesibility among the scale of women self-actualization. Thirdly, women centered consciousness on sex (ie. marriage, family) was appeared in 50 poems such as "Pohosa(步虛詞)", "Chugjisa(竹枝詞)", "Sonunghaeng(西陵行) 1, 2", "Ch'uhan(秋恨)", etc. The feminist consciousness appeared in these poems was that of sensitivity and voluntarily among the scale of women self-actualization. Fourthly, women's consciousness as a subject in social changes could be found in the works such as "Ch'uksongwon(築城怨) 1, 2", "Kagaeksa(賈客詞) 1, 2, 3", "Yusonsa(遊仙詞) 21", Songhagokjokgapsan(送荷谷謫甲山)", etc. The feminist consciousness showed in these poems was the source of reality-oriented and existentiality among the scale of women self-actualization. Fifthly, women's communal affliation consciousness was appeared in "Pinyoum(貧女吟)", "Kungsa(宮詞)", "Chungrugok(靑樓曲)", "Kinyoheang(奇女伴)", "Yusonsa(遊仙詞)", "Sonungheang(西陵行)", etc. The feminist consciousness revealed in these poems was the source of heightening the measurement of humanity and comprehensiveness in the scale of women's self-actualization. According to these analyses, the fact Ho Nansolhon was a traditional woman in the sixteenth century Korea was a historical fact and she looked as a :problematic" woman to the contemporary people. However, we can say that a woman's image contained in the works of Ho Nansolhon was not the women's image at that time. In the same context, we can boldly argue that "traditional women's image of Korea" involves the women's image with a feminist consciousness though the woman who had a modernistic feminist perspective considered as a "problematic" woman by the contemporary Koreans.
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