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상앙의 土地政策 硏究
- 상앙의 土地政策 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on the Land Policy of Shang Yang(商앙)
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사회생활학과
- 상앙; 토지정책; 개천백
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 戰國末 秦에서 추진된 상앙변법은 秦·漢 社會性格 및 體制硏究의 중요한 문제로서, 이에 대한 관심과 방대한 연구성과, 그리고 秦簡등의 새로운 사료출토에도 불구하고, 이에 대한 논란은 아직까지 종식되지 못하고 있다. 본고는 상앙의 變法중에서, 특히 그의 土地政策을 '開阡陌'을 중심으로 살펴본 것이다. 토지문제는 당시 개혁의 중요한 내용일뿐만 아니라, 이에 대한 고찰은 중국 고대사회 해명의 중요한 작업이다.
상앙의 토지정책은 전국시대 제개혁들과 마찬가지로, 당시 사회내부에 진행되고 있는, 氏族共同體의 해체에 따른 土地 共同所有로 부터 가족단위의 個別所有制의 등장이라는 사회경제적 일련의 움직임속에서, 전국말의 혼란과 함께 심화된 소유권 불분명이라는 모순을 해결하는 방향으로 전개되어 갔다.
상앙은 전대와는 달리 授田制가 불가능한 당시 상황에서, 개인의 소유권을 法에 의해 국가적 차원에서 보호함으로써, 사회안정을 도모하고, 동시에 당면한 사회경제적 과제를 해결하려 했다. 그는 소유랑에 제한없는 자유로운 토지소유권을 매개로 한, 국가세입의 증가를 통해 부국강병을 추구하려 했다.
본고에서 살펴본 상앙의 토지정책은 다음과 같이 정리될 수 있다.
1) '阡陌'이란, 田間의 토지경계인 '阡陌'의 설치로 개인의 토지소유를 확정하는 작업이었다.
2) '靑天秦牘'의 검토를 통해 알 수 있는 阡陌制의 구체적인 형태는, 1步 × 240步= 1畝制이며, 이를 근간으로 토지를 구획했다.
3) 이전의 공동체적 토지소유방식인 '轅田(爰田)制'를 폐지하고 가족단위의 토지개별소유를 인정한 것이었다.
이러한 상앙 토지정책의 결과로 형성된 전제의 성격은, 개별적인 소유와 세습이 가능하였고 토지소유량의 제한을 두지않는 사유제의 속성을 나타내었다. 한편, 상앙의 토지정척에 관한 사료에서 보이는 授田이란, 실제로는 '耕者有其田'의 원칙으로 일반 民의 사유화된 토지를 가리키는 것으로, 古來부터 王土思想을 최고의 理想으로 하였던, 당시 중국고대인의 생각이 반영된 표현이었다.;Part one : Introduction
Many scholars regard the Ch'in-Han Empires in Chinese History as the period of having new character. After union of Ch'in policy generally succeeded to Han period, and the base of Union Empiror of Sh'in was due to beginning from Shang Yang's reforms(상앙변법;B.C. 350). While character of one period is controlled, according to being style of land, main subject of Shang Yang's reforms is land, too. Though many studies have been progressed about Shang Yang's reforms, divergent views about land policy of Shang Yang have not core to an end. The contrary opinion is summarized whether people's private ownership of land was admitted as a result of land policy of Shang Yang or whether the Government gave people land of definite area. This study is important to this point and we discuss land policy of Shang Yang. Before concentrately discussing land policy of Shang Yang in chapter Ⅱ, we study period background, analyzing Book of Lord Shang(商君書) in chapter Ⅲ, we study ideological background. In chapter Ⅳ we mainly study land policy of Shang Yang, that is to say "K'ai ch'ien-mo(開阡陌)". First, we adjust established study achievements about "K'ai ch'ien-mo" and study this meaning. Second, by recently excavating archeological achievement, we inquire size and construction of "Kai ch'ien-mo". Third, "Chih yuan-t'en(制轅田)", the other expression of land policy of Shang Yang, is investigated in connection with "Yuan-t'en(轅田)" of Chin. In chapter Ⅴ, we study result of land policy of Shang Yang through existing investigation. Therefore, I would concludeby examining closely being style of people's land.
Part Two : The Social and Ideological Background of Shang Yang's reforms (Land economic of pre Shang Yang's reforms period)
Before Shang Yang, Ch'ingt'ien chin(井田制)-method of public ownership of land which is tax method of labor rent cultivated public product and public land under strong regulation in a clan community-is formed. Through the agitation in perlod of Ch'un-ch'iu and Chan-kuo and increase of productivity, possession and cultivation of land freed themselves from regulation in a clan community and Primitive form of private ownership and trade began. In order to overcome confusion according to this changing, many reforms were enforced in period of Ch'un-ch'iu and Chan-kuo. The military system which freed from a clan community was based "Chou(州)", "Ch'iu(丘)", or "Mu(畝)" of artificial regional social community. A tax system didn't change labor rent but real rent, and tax based on size of land was collected. According to confusion and change in that times the land system was also being built to direction pursued transitional change of land economic regulation and ownership mode.
Part Three : The Economic Ideology of Shang Yang
Shang Yang such as other the Fa-chia(法家) admitted realistic difference between rich and poor, and private ownership as laws. Because private income could increase national tax income, he affirmed private wealth.
Shang Yang reconized that distribution of land by nation is impossible in conditions of Chin in that times. Encouraging land reclamation and production, he contrived wealth and military Power of a nation. But he didn't limit the number of land in land reclamation and production.
Part Four : Study on the Land Policy of Shang Yang
Result of studying historical records and various views about "K'ai ch'ien-mo(開阡陌)"
1. "Ch'ien-mo(阡陌)" is the boundary between ways being each rectangular. "K'ai(開)" means building. Therefore, "K'ai ch'ien-mo" means that "Ch'ien-mo(阡陌)" was built and that boundary between land was made and that private ownership was verified.
2. CH'ien-mo system is divided land based on 1pu(步)x 240pu(步)= 1mu as a result of investigating 'wooden slip document Ch'ing-ch'uan hsien', "Sun Tzu ping-fa(孫子兵法)" from Mount Yin-ch'ueh Han tomb(銀雀山漢墓).
3. Bamboo in Mount Yin-ch'ueh Han tomb(銀雀山漢墓) is periodic land exchange method that "Yuan-t'en(爰田)" is customs of communal land ownership existed till pre Shang Yang period. Chih(制) means abolition. Therefore, "Chih Yuan-t'en(制轅田)" abolishs "Yuan-t'en(轅田)", frees from regulation of communal land possession, and realizes private landownership as the unit of family. "Chih Yuan-t'en(制轅田)" progressed land private ownership with "K'ai ch'ien-mo(開)阡陌".
Part Five : Conclusion
A result of Shang Yang's Land reform ; The character of people's land
Shang Yang did away with former communal regulation according to changing in society ＆ economy and practiced new land policy. He admitted private ownership about land. He divided land into 1mu system:1 pu(步)×240 pu(步)=240 mu(畝). Basing on this, he didn't limit the number of land as the unit of 100 mu(畝). And the land was admitted handing down to posterity. They levied tax based on land. Therefore, I think that character of people land is rather private possession than national possession.
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