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韓國 開港期 漁業에 관한 一硏究
- 韓國 開港期 漁業에 관한 一硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) Study on Fisheries in Korea during the Period when Korean Ports were First Opened : Emphasis on the Trade of Marine Products and Management of the Fishing Industry
- Issue Date
- 대학원 사학과
- 개항기; 어업; 대일수산물무역; 어업경영
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 朝鮮은 1876年에 日本과 朝·日修好條規를 체결함으로써 門戶를 개방하고 뒤이어 歐美資本主義諸國과도 修好通商條約을 체결하여 국제무대에 등장하게 되었다. 그러나 開港後 朝鮮은 특히 淸·日에 의한 중층적 外壓에 의해 '低開發의 衛星化'가 강요된 조건하에서 開港後의 自率的인 근대화 즉 後發資本主義國으로서의 발전의 길을 추구해 나가지 않으면 안되었다. 漁業문제 또한 이와 같은 방향을 추구하지 않을 수 없었으나 특히 日本의 漁業浸透에 직면하게 되었고, 이에 대한 주체의 대응이 나타났다.
本槁는 開港後 日本의 經濟的 浸透의 一環으로서의 漁業圈 浸透와 관련하여 開港期 朝鮮의 漁業狀況과 水産物 貿易 및 漁業經營등 漁業問題를 체계적으로 이해하기 위한 기초적 硏究이다. 지금까지 開港期 漁業과 관련된 연구로는, 日本漁民의 朝鮮沿海 侵犯과 그에 대한 朝鮮魚民의 저항에 관한 연구가 있었을 뿐 水産物 貿易 및 漁業經營 등에 관한 연구는 거의 없는 설정이다. 따라서 필자는 開港前後 朝鮮의 漁業狀況과 특히 水産物 貿易의 構造와 漁業經營에 특별히 촛점을 두게 되었다.
序論에서는 問題意識을 論하고, Ⅱ章에서는 開港前後 朝鮮의 漁業 狀況을 살펴보았다. 이당시 朝鮮의 漁業技術은 대체로 주어진 自然條件에 알맞는 漁具와 漁法을 이용하는 정도의 상태였다. 그리고 漁民 (漁夫·鑒夫·船人)의 사회적 지위와 생활을 볼 때 朝鮮王朝 의 봉건적인 身分差別觀에 기인하여 漁民一般은 賤民視되었다. 또한 均役法 실시 이후의 漁鑒船稅 體制는 開港後에도 답습되어 漁業의 발전과 漁民의 생활향상을 저해하였다.
Ⅲ章에서는 開港後 日本의 漁業權 侵奪經緯와 不法行爲에 대한 朝鮮의 對應을 考察하였다. 1883年에 체결된 朝·日通商章程 第41款에 의해 日本漁民은 全羅·慶尙·江原·咸鏡 4道 沿海에서 漁業할 수 있는 條約上의 權利를 얻었다. 이로부터 日本漁民들은 1889年에 朝·日通漁章程이 체결될 때 까지 漁稅를 내지 않고 허가된 지역에 와서 漁業하였으며 朝·日通漁章程 체결이후에도 片務的인 領事裁判權으로 인해 朝鮮政府가 日本漁民의 不法行爲를 사실상 규제할 수 없었다. 한편 1888년에는 仁川海面暫確 日本漁船捕魚額限規則이 成立되어 仁川沿海도 日本漁民에게 개방되었다.
Ⅳ章에서는 對日 氷産物 貿易의 構造를 살피고 그 유통구조와 관련하여 水産金融과 海民과의 관계를 經濟的인 측면에서 考察하였다. 開港期 對日 水産物 貿易은 食鑒등 약간의 魚類 수입을 제외하고 대부분이 수출이었다. 이와같은 水産物은 '出買船'과 客主·貿易商등의 유통과정을 거쳤는데 그 중에서도 客主의 역할이 가장 두드러졌음을 論하였다. 客主는 위탁판매뿐만 아니라 客主制 형태로 零細漁民에게 漁具 및 食糧등 어업경영에 필요한 物資형태의 資本을 대여하기도 했다. 그러므로 客主는 前期的 商人資本을 더욱 늘려갈 수 있었으며 漁民은 高利貸付에 의해 客主에 예속화 되어가는 경향도 찾아볼 수 있었다. 한편 1880년대 末에는 日本의 漁業浸透에 자극되어 日本으로부터 새로운 漁具·漁法을 도입하고 日本漁夫를 雇用하는 水産會社가 설립되는 등 새로운 漁業經營형태가 나타나고 있음을 논증하였다.
끝으로 結論에서는 本稿의 특징을 정리하고 특히 미비된 문제점과 앞으로의 연구과제를 제시하였다.;Korea first opened its doors to the world in 1876 by making the Korean-japanese Amity Treaty with Japan which was followed by similar kinds of treaties with other Western capitalist countries. Unfortunately since the opening in 1876, Korea has had to seek its own economic development under the pressure of Japan and China which forced the satalization of Korean economics around their own economic systems. Fisheries in korea during this period also had to face similar problems. Korean fishermen had to face the invasion of Korean seas by Japanese fishermen and find solutions to minimize the damage caused by the Japanese fishermen.
This study is an appempt to systematically understand the conditions of fisheries in Korea and the trade of marine products with Japan as well as the way the fishing business was done during the period when Korean ports were first opened, especially in relation with the invasion of Japanese fishermen into Korean seas as a means of the Japanese economic invasion of Korea. Related studies in this field have mainly focused on the Japanese fishermen's invasion of Korean seas and Korean fishermen's reaction to it. This is the reason why this study has made an attempt to also investigate the conditions of fisheries in Korea during the period when Korea first opened its doors and the trade of marine products with Japan along with the way the fishing business was managed.
In the Introduction, general problems were discussed. Chapter Two was devoted to an overview of the fisheries in Korea when Korean ports were first opened. At that time, the fishing techniques and equipment that Korean fishermen adapted were rather primitive, fitting the given natural resources and conditions. The socio-economic status of the particular people who caught fish, worked at the salt works, and worked on the boats was that of practically being social outcasts due to the traditional class system during the Yi dynasty. Continued practice of the government control including taxation on fisheries, salt-making, and boats that was based on Kyun-Yuk(均役法) was detrimental of the development of fisheries and the betterment of fishermen's living standards in Korea.
In Chapter Three, the process of Japanese invasion of Korean seas and Korean fishermen's reaction against the illegal acts were investigated. Japanese fishermen obtained the right to use inshore waters for fishing near Cholla, Kyungsang, Kangwon, and Hahmkyung province based on the Article 41 of Korean-Japan Commercial Treaty in 1883. During the period from 1883 to 1898 when the Korean-Japanese Fishery Treaty was signed, Japanese fishermen were exempt from fishing taxes. Moreover, even after the Fishery Treaty was made, the Korean government was not able to'control and/or regulate the illegal fishing done by Japanese fishermen due to partial consular jurisdiction. It was also noted that the coastal waters near Inchon were opened to Japanese fishermen based on the Regulations on the Temporary Fishing Quota of Japanese Fishing Boats in the Coastal Waters of Inchon signed in 1886.
In Chapter Four, the structure of the trade of marine products with Japan and the relationship between the finances in fisheries and the fishermen in the context of the circulation system of marine products were reviewed. First, most marine products trade with Japan during this period dealt with exporting with the exception of importing certain kinds of fish from Japan. Secondly, the role of the 'Buyer's ships', Kaekjoo(客主), and the traders in the circulation system of marine products were discussed. Kaekjoo, especially played a very important role in the trade of marine products with their regular consignment sales along with loaning capital mainly in the form of fishing equipment and food to poor fishermen. By loaning money at a high interest rate, Kaekjoo could accumulate and increase their capital for the business and consequently many fishermen fell into the state of slavery. It was also pointed out that a new kind of Fishery Company was founded in the late 1880's that introduced newer and more advanced fishing techniques and equipment as well as hiring Japanese workers as a part of a new form of fisheries in Korea stimulated by the Japanese invasion of fishing grounds in Korea.
Finally, in the Conclusion, a review of this study was made as well as the direction and tasks of future studies in the related areas were also suggested.
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