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開港이 近代都市形成에 미친 歷史地理學的 硏究

Title
開港이 近代都市形成에 미친 歷史地理學的 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Geographical Study on the Process of Modern City Forming as Opening Port : A Case Study of Kunsan
Authors
尹正淑 .
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
대학원 사회생활학과
Keywords
개항도시형성근대도시역사지리학군산항
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
영문초록 수록;本 硏究의 目的은 群山을 對象으로 하여 1899年 開港場 租界設定 以後 租界制度가 廢止되었던 1913年까지의 15年間 政治, 社會, 經濟 的 影響으로 인한 群山의 機能變化에 對한 考奈을 통하여 近代都市 의 內部構造의 形成過程을 밝히는데 있다. 開港以前의 群山은 沃溝縣 北面에 屬하였으며, 17世紀부터 附近七 邑의 租稅米를 모았던 群山倉과 이를 保護하기 위한 群山鎭이 設置 되어져 일찍부터 米穀 集産地로서의 機能을 갖고 있었다. 그러나 1894 年 稅制의 改編과 함께 米穀集産地로서의 機能을 喪失함에 따라 北 亭丘와 周邊의 丘陵地를 中心으로 形成되었던 聚落은 衰退하게 되었다. 1899年 開港場으로서의 指定은 群山에 새로운 活氣를 불러 일으켰 는데, 開港以後 그 時代的 背景과 새로운 都市機能의 空間分布, 人口 增加, 交通發達에 따른 群山의 時期別 都市構造의 形成過程과 그 發 達은 다음과 같다. 1) 租界의 成立期 ( 1899-1903 ) 中失의 低平地가 最初로 劃定된 居住可能地域으로 格子形의 街路網 패턴으로 設計되었다. 聚落의 衰退過程에서 開港場租界가 設定되어 다 시 開港以前 韓國人의 中心地였딘 北亭丘 周邊에 官廳衛가 形成되며 日本人 主導下에 새로운 都市構造를 갖추어 갔다. 그러나 租界 밖으 로 逐出된 韓國人은 全州街道邊 租界의 隣接地域에 分離居住하면서 租 界地域과 對照를 이루며 成長하였다. 2) 道路의 開通과 整備期 ( 1904-1908 ) 露日戰爭은 群山商圈의 擴大를 가져왔다. 그리고 背後地域과의 원활한 交通을 위한 全群街道의 開通과 貿易灌으로서의 機能을 强化시켜 준 港灣의 整備로 都市構造에 變化가 냐타났다. 市街地의 全般的인 擴張現象이 나타났으며, 특히 米穀輸出과 關聯하 여 本町通에서는 金融機關과 倉庫 等이, 浪花町과 幸町에서는 精米所 鐵工所 等 工場이 增加하였다. 全州街道邊의 韓國人 居住地域은 全群 街道의 開通으로 開福洞, 九福洞 等의 丘陵地域으로 擴大되었다. 3) 鐵道關通期 ( 1909-1913 ) 韓日合邦으로 인한 租界地域의 境界線 撤廢와 群山線의 開通으로 群 山의 空間的 擴張이 가장 活潑히 이루어졌다. 市街地의 擴大로 明治 町通와 榮町에 一部機能이 移轉되면서 새로운 中心地域을 形成하여 갔 다. 租界地域 밖으로 日本人勢力의 擴大로 인해 以前에 居住하던 韓 國人 一部는 다시 逐出되며 混居가 이루어지게 되었으며, 韓國人居住 地域은 無秩序하게 膨脹되어 日本人居住施와 뚜렷한 差異를 나타냈다. 都市發達의 初期段階로서 居住地域과 商業地域의 뚜렷한 區分은 나타나지 않았으나, 榮町의 群山驛一浪花町·幸町의 精米工業地域一本町의 港灣, 倉庫, 金融地域으로 연결되는 一聯의 地域發達은 米穀輸出港으로 서의 特色을 나타내면서 群山地域內의 機能分化現象을 招來하기 시작 하였으며 現在의 群山을 이루는 基本 바탕을 形成하였다.;The purpose of this study is to examine the internal structuring process of modern city influenced by political and socioeconomic forces from the establishment of the concession at Kunsan port in 1899 to the abolition of the concession in 1914. Kunsan, which belonged to Buk-myun Okgu-hyun before opening a port, had fulfilled its function as a collecting and distributing center of rice since Kunsan-chang, the storehouse of grains for taxes paid by neighboring seven Eups, and Kunsanjin, the fortress to protect these facilities were established in the 17th century. But the tax reform in 1894 made Kunsan lose its function as a collecting and distributing center of rice, then the settlements in Bukjeonggu and its adjacent hill area declined. As opening a port, changing process of urban structure and its expansion in Kunsan influenced by emergence of new urban functions, an increase in popula- tion, and the introduction of new transportation system, can be summarized: 1) The Formation Period of the Concession (1899-1903) The central low area, the first demarcated areas possible to dwell in, was designed for grid pattern. At the beginning of the process, the concession at open port was established, and the civic centers were formed at Bukjeonggu, which were the center of Korean settlers before opening a port, under the control of Japanese power. But Korean lived in the concession area redistributed in the side of Cheonjugado, the road from Kunsan to Cheonju, and the new pattern of Korean settlement formed differently from that of Japanese settlement. 2) The Period of Opening and Maintenance of Roads (1904-19O8) The Russe-Japanese War brought about the expansion of the commercial function of Kunsan. The opening of Cheonkungado, the road from Cheonju to Kunsan, caused addi- tional change of urban structure. The overall expansion of built-up area was progressed, and especially in connec- tion with exports of rice the banking facilities and store- houses were appeared at Hon-machi-dori (本町通), the mills and iron works and other factories at Naniwa-machi (浪花町) and Saiwai-machi(幸町). Korean settlements on the side of Cheonjugado were expanded to the hill area such as Gaebok- dong, Gubok-dong and others. 3) The Period of Opening Railroad (1909-1913) The spatial expansion of Kunsan was largely influenced by the abolition of the concession after the Japanese annexa- tion and the opening of Kunsan railroad. Together with the outward of built-up areas, some urban functions were trans- ferred to Meiji-machi-dori (明治町通) and Sakae-machi (榮町), and then those area became a new central zone. The Japanese influence gradually expanded out of the concession area, and many Korean residents were driven out again by Japanese. But Korean residential area grew so disorderly that it showed a clear distinction with Japanese residence. A clear-cut difference between residential and commercial area was not shown at this stage, but a series of regional development connected from Kunsan station at Sakae-machi to harbor at Hon-machi-dori manifested the characteristics as an export port and began to bring about the differentiation of its functional area in Kunsan.
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