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章炳麟의 民報期 思想轉機에 관한 一考察

Title
章炳麟의 民報期 思想轉機에 관한 一考察
Other Titles
STUDY ON THE CHANGE OF THOUGHT AT THE TIME OF MIN PAO OF CHANG PING LIN : CONCERNING HIS IDEALISM
Authors
李惠娟
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
장병린민보기사상전기이상론
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Chang Ping Lin(章炳麟) is the last man who inherited the tradition of critical philogy(考證學), as well as a revolutionist in the time of the Revolution of 1911. As a revolutionist Chang blew in the energy to the revolution suggesting the theory and idea of revolution, but his theory of revolution was ruined after Min Pao time(民報期), and seceded from ,the position of a revolutionist. The Characteristics kept by the theory of revolution of Chang shows, first, it is on the basis of traditional scholarship thought, secondly, it attached importance to personal quality, In carrying out the revolution, contending that the patriotism shoud be improved through the Revolutional morals and national essence(國粹), thirdly, in the theory of reform, a progress called a theory of Revolution on thought is made, and it shows that it takes the road to Conservation, seceding from the Revolutionary Alliance(同盟會) when the time of Min Pao is over. Here, the Min Pao time is the time when he was in charge of the chief editor and it is the time when his theory of ideal of inanimate doctrine, as called Five Negations(五無論) is formed, after a theory of Revolution based on the subjective spiritual theory, not appeared before the Min Pao time, when Fa-Shiang sect(法相宗=唯識宗) of the Buddhism and Chi-wu lun(齊物論) acted as big important factors since the Su Pao(蘇報) accident. This is the time when the theory of Revolution based on the racial doctrine was in the peak, and simultaneously is the time when the subjective spiritual theory, five negations of nihilism(無生主義) appeared, and when this time ends, it enters the road to the conservation, involving many problems. In this thesis, the author aims at studing what such ideological point gave certain characteristics to the theory of Revolution of chang, considering all the characteristics of the traditional scholarship thought, theory of fa-shiang sect, chi-wu lun, which were the idcologial background of the theory of revolution of Min Pao time. Also, this matters will help explain the reason why chang seceded from the revolutional party. The Ku Wen(古文) scientific background helped standing in a position of the race doctorine of distinction between civilization and barbarism(華夷峻別), and che-tung hsu¨eh(浙東學) and hsiao hsu¨eh(小學) appeared into agitation of patriotism through a particular national essence, by being united to the national essence. Fa-hsiang sect and thought of Chi-wu lun benied the phenomenal world and objective world from the characteristics of such thoughts, and become his theoretical foundation attaching importance to the human quality and the freedom and independence gained from those two thoughts resisting against the oppression of the others became the foundation of both the nationlism and the doctrine of the people's rights, and accordingly his theory of revolution did positive roles. However, the subjective spiritual theory, theory of cognition of Fa-hsiang sect and Chi-wu lun itself denying the objective world and absolute value keeps the factors of both absolutism and nihilism. Also, Chang viewed the human nature in evil aspect, based on possession both of good and evil of the origin(種子) in Fah-siang sect, and he insisted on the evolution theory on the basis of this theory of the human nature, and he was not able to put the future of the actuality to a hope, seeing through the contradition of the capitalism. In the long run, he escaped from such ideologically and reversed to the direction of the human history, resulting to consisting on the Five Negations not realizable. The Five Negations is in an absdute nil denying even the substance of the world, and in such position it can be viewed that his theory of revolution may draw one into a step of abisdoctrine with a view of getting rid of the actual differences. However, the tendency of his abio-doctrine denying the actual world, standing above ideologically, and what he laid stress on only human mind in the course to carry out the revolution, were able to carry out positive roles as enhance of idealogy in the beginning time of the revolution for the actual political issue, so-called revolution, but resulted to secede from the revolutional party who aimed at building a Republic after the revolution, and it is viewed that his theory of Revolution was upset.;章炳麟(1869~1936)은 辛亥革命期의 革命家인 同時에 淸代 考證學의 傳統을 繼承한 最後의 人物이다. 革命家로서 章은 革命의 理論과 理念을 提示하여 革命에 에너지를 불어 넣었지만 民報期(1906~1908) 以後 그의 革命論은 挫折되고 革命派로부터 離脫하고 만다. 章의 革命論이 가지는 特徵은 첫째, 傳統學術思想을 바탕으로 하고 있다는 點. 둘째, 革命을 遂行하는 데 있어서 人間의 資質을가장 重視하여 革命道德과 國粹를 通한 愛國心의 增進을 主張하였다는 點. 세째, 變法論에서 革命論이라고 하는 思想上의 發展이 있고, 民報期가 끝나면 同盟會로부터 離脫하여 保守化의 길을 걷게 된다는 點이다. 여기에서 民報期라고 하는 것은 章이 民報의 주필을 맡았던 時期로 蘇報事件 以後 佛敎의 唯識宗과 齋物論이 큰 要素로 作用하여 民報期 以前에는 나타나지 않던 主觀唯心主義에 根據한 革命論이 發表되고 五無論이라는 그의 無生主義의 이상론이 形成되는 時期이다. 이 時期는 種族主義에 기초한 革命論이 가장 고조되었던 時期임과 同時에 主觀唯心主義, 虛無主義의 五無論이 나타나는 時期로 이 時期가 끝나면 保守化의 길로 접어든다는 데에 많은 問題性을內包하고 있다. 本稿에서는 民報期의 革命論의 思想的 背景인 傳統學術思想, 唯識宗, 齊物論의 諸特性을 살펴봄으로써 이러한 思想的要素가 章의 革命論에 어떠한 特徵을 부여하였는가를 考察하고자 하였다. 또한 이 問題는 章이 革命派로부터 離脫하는 理由를 說明할 수 있으리라 생각한다. 傳統學術의 古文學的 背景은 改良派의 康有爲와는 달리 華夷峻別의 種族主義의 立場에 서게 하였고, 浙東學과 小學은 國粹로 統合되어 國粹의 宣揚을 通한 愛國心의 격동으로 나타났다. 唯識宗과 齋物論은 이들 思想의 特徵으로부터 현상세계, 객관세계를 否定하여, 人間의 資質을 重視하는 그의 革命道德의 理論的 基礎가 되었고 이들 두 思想으로부터 얻은 他者의 壓迫에 抵抗하는 自由와 自主性은 民族主義와 民權主義의 基礎가 되어 그의 革命論에 積極的 役割을 하였다. 그러나 客觀世界와 絶對價値를 否定하는 唯識宗과 齋物論 自體의 主觀唯心主義 認識論은 相對主義, 虛無主義의 要素를 지닌다. 또한 章은 唯識宗의 種子의 善惡兼有說에 根據하여 人性을 惡하게 보고, 이 人性論을 바탕으로 俱分進化論을 主張하여 資本主義의 矛盾을 看破함으로써 現實의 未來를 希望에 두지 못하였다. 이에 觀念的으로 超越하고, 人間歷史의 方向에 逆轉하여 結局 實現不可能한 五無論을 主張하게 되었다. 五無論은 世界의 實體마저 否認하는 絶對無의 立場으로 이러한 無의 立場에서는 그의 革命論도 現實의 差別을 없애기 爲한 無生主義의 一段階로 包攝된다고 볼 수 있다. 그러나 觀念的으로 超越하고 現實世界를 否定하는 그의 無生主義의 傾向과 革命을 遂行하는 과정에서 人間의 精神을 강조한 것을 革命이라고 하는 現實의 政治問題에 對하여 革命初期에는 理念의 宣揚으로 積極的 役割을 遂行하였지만 結局은 革命後 共和國 建設을 目標로 하는 革命派로부터 離脫하게 하였고 따라서 그의 理想論은 挫折되고 말았다.
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