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五服制度에 관한 硏究

Title
五服制度에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study on the five degrees mourning system
Authors
鄭明子.
Issue Date
1975
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Keywords
오복제도조선왕조국휼복제
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The present paper is to contemplate the basic principle of mourning system among the people and the national mourning during Yi Dynasty, and further to inquire into some derivative problems coming from the actual performance of mourning. With the introduction of "Chu-ja" learning at the later years of Koryo Dynasty the funeral rites became of more importance and was drawn up as more definite rules by "Myung-yuil". The mourning system is divided into five sorts, "Chamchoi" (斬衰), "Je-choi" (濟衰), "Dae-gong" (大功), "So-gong"(小功), and "Si-ma" (媤麻), so usually called Five Degrees Mourning System (五服制度). What degree is to be taken is decided by the mourner's degree of familiarity to the deceased, how intimate or distant, by the realtive rank of the deceased within the kin, whether senior or junior, by the social status of the deceased and of his family. According to the degree of mourning decided, distinctions are made in the period of mourning various from three years to three months, in the stuff of mourning garments different in the sort of sackcloth, fine/or coarse, raw or boiled, and in the method of making mourning garb, borders hemmed or unhemmed. "Cham-choi" is the heaviest mourning made of coarsest raw sackcloth with fringes unhemmed worn for parents and husband, nominally for three years, actually for twenty-seven months. Ruggedly unhemmed borders seem to signify the mourner's deep compunction of his undutiful filial piety. "Je-choi" is the second degree of mourning worn for three years for mother in case of the mourner's father dead and for one year carrying mourningstaff for mother when his father is alive and for his grandparents without carrying mourningstaff. Also it is worn for five months for great-grandparents, and three months for their parents, that is great-great-grandparents. The mourning garb is made of coarse raw sackcloth with hemmed borders. "Dae-gong" which means great meritorious service is nine months' mourning for paternal first cousins. The slightly boiled coarse sackcloth is used for the stuff of the garments of this degree mourning. "So-gong" is the mourning worn for five months for the second cousins and grand uncles and aunts. The slightly boiled fine sackcloth is used for the garments. "Si-ma" is the mourning worn for three months for paternal third cousins made with the finest boiled sackcloth. The principal parts of mourning garments are "choi" the upper garments, and "sang" the lower garments. To the upper garments are attached four strips of cloth, that is "yeong" on the top of the front, "jeok" on the top of the shoulder, "choi" on the breast and "bu-pan" on the back. The lower garments is consisted of seven breadth cloth, three front and four back breadth. Mourners, leaning on the mourning staff, wear white hempen cloth cap with three pleats and twisted hempen threads on the head "su-jil", and twisted hempen threads girdle on the waist "yo-jil", and straw sandals on the feet. When the King, the Queen, the Queen Mother, the Crown Prince, or the Wife of the Crown Prince pass away, the whole nation, from all the various civil and military officials and royal family even to the common people, wear mourning garments. The system of national mourning is by and large complied with the general system illustrated above and is recorded concretely in the Dynasty's Five Rites "Kuk-jo-o-rye-ui". Though national mourning system is principally based upon the Dynasty's Five Rites, however, in a particular problematic situation the King himself selects one way of observing mourning from various opinions offered by courtiers clustered into cliques. For the main the then influential faction's stand was selected.;本 論文은 喪服制度의 原則 및 朝鮮王朝의 國恤服制 또 國恤을 實行함에 있어서의 問題點 등을 考察한 것이다. 高麗末 朱子學이 導入되면서 점차 喪制의 禮俗이 重要視 되었는데 喪服制度가 좀더 整然히 規定된 것은 明律에 의해서였다. 喪服制度는 斬衰, 齊衰, 大功, 小功, 總麻의 五等級으로 區分되므로 死者에 대한 服者의 親疎遠近 關係와 家族과 社會의 尊卑, 地位, 身分에 따라 달라진다. 等級에 따라 服喪期限은 最低 三月에서 最高 三年까지 있으며 喪服의 資料인 麻에도 精粗生熟에 差異가 있고 制作上에도 緝, 不緝의 差異가 있다. 가장 重喪인 斬衰는 極蠶生布로 만들고 邊을 꿰매지 않으며(不緝) 父나 夫에 대한 喪이다. 服喪期限은 三年이나 實際로는 27個月이다. 邊을 하지 않는 것은 喪을 當함에 대한 不孝罪를 나타냄인 것 같다. 齊衰는 斬衰 다음 가는 服으로 次等蠶生布로 만들고 服喪期限은 三年, 一年(杖期, 不杖期), 五月, 三月 등이 있다. 三年은 母(父率爲母), 一年인 경우 杖期는 母(父在爲母 및 出母, 嫁母), 不杖期는 祖父母, 五月은 曾祖父母, 三月은 高祖父母이다. 杖期, 不杖期는 지팡이의 있고 없음의 差異이며, 齊衰以下는 喪服의 邊을 緝한다. 大功은 稍蠶熟布로 만들고 從兄弟姉妹에 대한 服으로 服喪期限은 九月이다. 小功은 稍細熟布로 만들고 從祖父母, 再從兄弟에 대한 服이며 服喪期限은 五月이다. 總麻는 極細熟布로 만들고 族曾祖父母, 三從兄弟 등에 대한 服이며 服喪期限은 三月이다. 다음에는 喪裝의 諸部分을 살펴보겠는데 中心되는 部分은 衰衣와 裳이다. 衰衣는 上衣를 말하고 裳은 下衣이다. 衰衣는 前面의 頂部에 領이 있고, 肩部에 適이 있고, 胸部에 衰가 있고 後面의 背部에 負版이 있으니, 各己 規定된 칫수에 따라 布片을 附添한 것이다. 裳은 前三幅, 後四幅의 七幅으로 되어 있다. 머리위에는 三벽이 있는 冠을 쓰고 首질을 하며 허리에는 腰질을 하고 짚신을 신으며 喪杖을 짚는다. 다음에는 國朝續五禮儀에 의해 國恤服制에 대해서 살펴보겠는데 國恤服制는 國喪時 즉 王, 王妃, 大王妃, 王世子, 王世子嬪이 돌아가셨을 때 입는 喪服制度를 말하며 一般喪服制度의 原則에 準한다. 다만 服喪의 範圍가 넓어서 王族에서 庶民에 이르기까지 喪服이 定해져 있다는 點이 特殊하다. 또 增補文獻備考에 의해 歷代 王室의 國恤服制에 대해서 살펴본즉 五禮儀에 의거함을 原則으로 삼고 있으나 때때로 朝臣들이 派를 이루어 各己의 主張을 내세워 王이 이中에서 採擇했는데 대개의 경구 그 當時 勢力派의 主張이 貫徹되었음을 알 수 있다.
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