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新羅 金石文의 書誌學的 考察

新羅 金石文의 書誌學的 考察
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(A) bibliographical study of Silla epigraph
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대학원 도서관학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
金石文은 金屬과 石物에 鑄刻된 文字記錄으로 人物의 履歷, 功績, 施設, 經文, 敎戒, 詩歌, 銘文 等의 內容을 永久的으로 正確하게 傳承하는 것이다. 中國의 夏·殷·周에 淵源을 두고 儒敎 經典의 石刻風으로 展開되어 儒敎의 隆盛과 함께 發達된 것이다. 新羅는 唐의 影響 下에 佛敎와 儒敎를 受容하여 獨創的인 文化를 形成, 發展시킨 古代國家로서 佛敎文化의 發達로 碑, 塔, 鍾, 造像, 金版經 等 多樣하고 特有한 金石文을 形成하여 韓國金石의 根源을 이루었다. 新羅 金石文외 主宗은 石文으로 碑가 主流를 이루고 있다. 銘의 字體는 拳皆가 歐陽詢體의 楷書이며 文字는 거의 漢字를 使用하였다. 文章은 漢文體로서 그 初期에는 散文이었으나 末期에는 漸次 韻文으로 轉換되었다. 또한 銘文 中에 吏讀의 記刻과 王羲之의 集字碑가 있어 羅代 金石文의 價値는 큰 것이다. 이 外에 金石의 鑄刻術的 發展은 末期의 金版經에 이르게 되어 木版印刷의 濫觴에 至大한 影響을 끼친다.;Epigraph, which is antique literal records engraved on metals or stones, embraces various types of contents : a personal history, one's meritorious deed, explantions of institutions, Scriptures, instructions poetry, or inscriptions. The Oriental epigraph originated from the Era of Three Dynasties including Hsia, Shang, and Chou in China, spread out in the type of stone engravings of the Classical Canon, and throve with the prosperity of Buddhism. Silla, one of the ancient Three States in Korea, whose dynasty compromised Buddihism and Confucianism under the influence of Tang, formed and enlarged her own peculiar culture, produced various chracteristic inscriptions as one placed on tombstones, monuments, and bells, carved histories of statues of Buddha, gold engravings of the Buddhist scripture, and etc., through the repercussion of Buddhism which had grew up since the middle period. The commonest type of epigraphs in the Era of Silla, was one engraved on stones, especially, one placed on monuments or tombs. These had gradually systemized since the Era of the Unification of the Three States and become the origin of the Korean epigraph. The inscriptions in Silla were written in the square style of Ou-yang Hs¨un(歐陽詢) 's handwriting, in chinese : a prose style in the early years, a verse style called Sa Ryuk Bung Ryer Style(四六騈儷體) which is a literary style arousion a sense of beaty by using rhymes and antitheses made up of 4 and 6 letters, later. Fortunately, we owe the worthy existence of a monment containg Wang Hsi-Chih's(王羲之) own writing letters to the Chinese characters inscribed on the stones. Besides, the advancement of skill in engraving, which came to culminate in the accompanishment of the Buddhist Scripture inscribed on the gold, considerably affected quickening of the woodenblock printing. Therefore we come to a conclusion the epigraph, one of the oldest bibliographic materials is valuable enough to have effect on the research of calligraphy and of Ⅰ-tu(吏讀), the letter invented and used in the Era of Silla, not to speak of the study of the ancient history.
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