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日本牡丹文에 관한 고찰
- 日本牡丹文에 관한 고찰
- Other Titles
- (A) STUDY ON FIGURATIVE DESIGNS OF THE PEONY IN JAPANESE
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 일본; 모란문; 직물
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 한 時代나 民族의 造形樣式은 그 時代나 民族의 氣質을 反映한다는 점에 立脚하여 本 究硏는 牡丹文樣을 日本의 各種 工藝品을 對象으로 삼아 그 속에 나타난 牡丹文의 表現樣式의 特質 및 그 時代的 변천을 꽃, 잎, 줄기 等의 分析的인 方法으로 考察하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다.
부귀의 상징으로 觀賞되여 意匠으로 애용된 牧丹은 日本 奈良時代 聖式天皇때, 日本에 들어와 觀賞되다가 當時, 유행하고 있던 寶相華文에서 牡丹을 하나의 모티브로 취급하면서 부터 日本에서의 文樣化가 形成되고 그 以後 平安時代에 접어들어 단독 牡丹文의 모습을 나타낸다.
이렇게 구축된 日本의 牡丹文은 鎌倉時代부터 木漆工藝를 中心으로한 各種 工藝品에서 활발하게 展開되는데 圖案風으로 牡丹花文이 균질하고 조밀한 細線樣式과 함께 正面措寫이고, 圓形化로 菊花文과 같은 形狀이며 百花文 形式과 같은 構成方式이나 區劃속에서의 充塡構圖를 나타낸다. 이는 牡丹文에서 함께 나타나는 中國 唐으로 부터 이 時代에 傳來된 唐獅子의 圖樣과 더불어 日本 特有의 表現樣式들이다. 牡丹文이 함께 하는 他意匠으로서는 그 外에도 나비, 달, 종교적 색채가 强한 蓮花, 三고 等이 보인다.
室町時代에 접어들면 織物에서, 牡丹花葉辯의 先端이 꼬부라져 나타나는 表現樣式이 代表를 이루는 中國的인 表現要素가 많이 나타나 中國의 遺品도 많았으나, 文樣의 小形化, 文章風,낱낱이 배열된 花·葉辯의 構成樣式, erotic한 감각 等과 鎌倉彫에서의 正面形의 大形化는 日本의 代表的인 表現樣式들로 裝飾된다. 韓國 特有의 asynmetric 이며, 唐獅子는 물론 菊花, 龍 等의 他意匠도 나타난다.
이러한 謙倉·室町時代에서 비롯된 表現樣式들을 繼承하고 있는 桃山時代는 이에 덧붙여 牡丹文이 多彩롭게 彩色되어 나타나고 書草風이 mannerism에 빠진 表現樣式, 色彩로 나타낸 立體感, 人物의 他意匠 等의 日本的인 造形樣式도 찾아지고 있다.
江戶時代에는 桃山時代의 多彩로운 傾向이 陶器에서 繪函風으로 화려하게 裝飾되면서 대담하고 多樣한 構成樣式도 나타나는데 이러한 활발한 裝飾活動은 成熱한 美意識을 이룩하여 後期에 접어들어서는 單純化된 形態感, 現代的인 洗練美를 연출하고, 이러한 趣味는 染織物에서 牡丹文을 茶色과 같은 칙칙한 분위기 속에서 單色的으로 表現한다. 形態上으로는 日本 牡丹文을 代表하는 圖案風으로 正面形의牡丹花가 나타난다.
즉 日本의 牡丹文은 中國의 牡丹文이 牡丹의 자태를 확실하게 表現하고, 韓國의 牡丹文이 脫牡丹花 현상을 보이는 것과는 달리 正面形의 圖案風으로 自然을 再構成하고 있다.;Prom the aspect that the formative modes of certain period or people reflect their spirits of that time, this study has investigated the peculiarities of expressional modes on the peony of Japanese according to its periodical transitions, with center in the every kinds of applied fine art wors of Japanese to the peony and the peonies expressed were analyzed in flowers, leaves and stems for the investigation.
The results are like these:
The peony design, which has been appreciated as the symbol of wealth and prosperity, was introduced to Japan in Seibudenno times of the Nara period from China. It had been treated as a motive in a designing trend which called as the Hosokabung that means flowers-designed treasury and had been popular during that time, and at last in the Heyan period the design mode had been brought to its unique patterns.
The so originated peony-designing pattern of Japanese had been presented in various kinds of art sincp the Kamakura period The characteristics of the pattern can be said as schematic, densive, rounded like the shape of a chrysanthemum, and front view pointed discriptions of structure fullfilled with many ablazing flowers. These have been the peculiar expressional characteristics of Japanese, while the design of the Dosisi that meant Chinese lion and introduced at that period has been native to China. Another designs which been together with the peony were the honey, the moon, rural lotus flowers and etc.
Getting into the Muromachi period so much characters of Chinese exp ression whic involve the shapes crooking the tips of flowers and leaves upward had been appeared and also the relics from Chinese were many. Nevertheless the small shapes of flowers, writing styles of shape, each by each arranged petal slices, erotic feelings, and enlargements of the front view pointed round shape etc. are the outstailding expressional modes of Japanese. And besides with these, Korean unique style of asymmetry and also the Chinese lion as well as the chrysanthemum and the dragon had been appeared in this period.
In the Momoyama period, the nodes of the Kamakura and Muromachip periods were integrated, and also the peony design were integrated, and also the peony design patterns showing many various colors had shown its traditional trend of Japanese like manneristic expressive modes, a sense of perspective by means of colors and another designs of persons etc.
In the Edo period, the pottery having been decorated with pictorial ornaments according to colorful tendency and go various daring structuring attitudes had been presented. And so viaorous ornamental actives had made some complete senses of beauty, and as the results getting into later period, showed a formal simplicity and modern-like refined beauty, and the taste of these has become to express in dyeing textiles the peony with the dark and gloomy feeling of solid color like that of tea. Also in the figurative aspects, the front view pointed shape of design which represent the Japanese peony design pattern have been appeared.
Like above, the peony design pattern of Japanese reconstitute the nature through the front view pointed form of design, while those of chinese and expressed with exact shape, and those of Korea are showing the trend making free themselves from the peony as such.
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