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大韓帝國 紅蔘專賣政策에 關한 一硏究

Title
大韓帝國 紅蔘專賣政策에 關한 一硏究
Other Titles
(THE) STUDY OF THE HONG-SAM MONOPOLY POLCY IN THE DAE HAN JE GUK
Authors
趙慶美
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
대한제국홍삼전매정책홍삼
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本槁는 犬韓帝國期의 紅蔘專賣政策의 背景과 함께 그 展開狀況을 蔘圃民의 實態를 通하여 考察한 것이다. 먼저 序論에서 그 課題意識을 論하였고, 第Ⅱ章(紅蔘專賣政策의 背景)에서는 18세기以後 紅蔘의 發達과 開港以後 淸日商人의 潛蔘을 論하였다. 18세기以來 普及되기 시작한 栽培人蔘과 이를 蒸造한 紅蔘은 그 品質의 優秀性으로 主要 對外輸出品이 됨에 따라, 紅蔘에 對한 政策은 國政의 重要한 부문이 되였다. 이에 朝鮮後期 開港期에 이르기 까지의 紅蔘政策을 보면 紅蔘의 蒸造와 輸出을 譯官이나 商人들에게 一任시키고 그 대신에 一定한 稅額을 課하였고, 國家의 監視綱을 벗어나 脫稅한 潛蔘에 對하여는 嚴格하였다. 한편, 人蔘栽培는 商業的 農業으로서 栽培技術이 向上되었으며 特히 開城地方을 中心으로 發達되어 갔다. 그러나 開港後, 一連의 强要된 不平等條約과 關聯하여 淸·日商人의 潛蔘이 盛行하게 되었다. 特히 淸國은 政治的 優勢를 利用하여 大量의 紅蔘을 密搬出하였으며, 日本政府의 庇護를 받은 日本商人 역시 潛蔘으로 문제를 야기시키기도 하였다. 第Ⅲ章(大韓帝國 紅蔘專賣政策의 推移)에서는 甲午更張期의 '包蔘公司章程'은 政府가 人蔘의 蒸造와 輸出을 規制하였으나 直接 管掌하기 위한 것이 아님을 밝히고, '蔘政社章程'의 制定과 官蔘對外委託販賣에 있어서의 問題의 所在를 論하였다. 1899年 皇室財政機構인 內藏院下의 紅蔘專賣會社로 發足한 蔘政社는, 開港後 淸日商入의 侵透와 特히 甲午更張以後의 潛蔘의 跋扈에 대한 措處로서 皇室의 財政收入을 確固히 하기 위한 것이었다. 蔘政社에서 蔘圃民으로 부터 水蔘을 買入하여 蒸造한 後 內藏院을 通하여 輸出하도록 함으로서, 皇室은 蔘圃民으로 부터 거두어 들이는 稅金外에 蒸造 輸出에서의 利得을 더 取하게 되었다. 그러나 官蔘化한 紅蔘을 輸出 하기 위한 對外 運送手段을 確保하지 못한 大韓帝國은 外國商社에 이를 委託販賣하게 되였다. 이러한 委託販賣의 과정에서 外國商社들의 競爭과 關聯하여 皇室은 日本 三井物産과 委託販賣를 契約하는 조건으로 日商의 潛蔘 및 창채 防止를 제의하였다. 그러나, 三井物産은 이를 奇貨로 官蔘委託販賣를 排他的으로 獨占하고자 하였다. 第Ⅳ章(紅蔘專賣政策의 性格)에서는 蔘圃民의 實態를 살펴보고, 大韓帝國期의 紅蓼專賣政策의 性格을 論하였다. 光武初期 蔘圃耕作은 雇傭人의 專門性이 상당히 발달되어 商業的 農業으로서 크게 發達되고 있었음을 알 수 있었다. 그러나 1900年以後 蔘圃耕作面積이 줄어들기 시작하여 1905年에는 極히 衰殘한 지경에 이르렀다. 이러한 蔘業에 있어서의 減退現象은 當時 農産物의 輸出의 增加에 자극되어 商業化가 進展되고 있던 大豆·煙草等과는 相反되는 것이었다. 이에 大韓帝國期 紅蔘專賣政策의 施行過程을 블 때, 水蔘稅 氷蔘次稅·紅蔘稅 巡校經費, 兵丁裏足費의 重疊된 原稅 以外에 間買罰金과 公土間稅의 雜稅가 賦課되었다. 여기에 勒減蔘價·秤縮病枯 賂物要求 等의 官吏의 弄奸이 심하였다. 이로서 大韓帝國 紅蔘專賣政策은 기본적으로 蔘圃民을 위한 것이기 보다 皇室財政收入의 增大를 優先的인 課題로 생각하여 策定·施行된 것이기 때문에, 도리어 蔘圃民의 아래로 부터의 商業的 農業의 進展을 沮止하는 要因이 되기도 하였음을 論證하였다.;This paper is to study on the background and development of the Hong Sam(紅蔘: ginseng steamed red) monopoly policy of Dae Han Je Guk (大韓帝國), through the actual state of Sam Po Min(蔘圃民: ginseng cultivators). Being given the statement on the thesis of this paper in introduction, in the 2nd chapter the development of Hong Sam (紅蔘) since the 18th century and the Jam Sam(潛蔘: dealing ginseng illegally) by the merchants from the Japan and Chung (淸: Chinese dynasty) after the opening of port (開港) were discussed. Cultivated ginseng and Hong Sam, which were spread over since the 18th century had become important export goods for superior quality, and so the policy on the Hong Sam had become a important part of governance. The policy on the Hong Sam till the opening of port in the later Jo Sun(朝鮮) dynasty was such that a fixed taxes was assessed on official interpreter and merchants instead of the commitment of dealing and export to them, and as for Jam Sam(潛蔘), which meaned the evasion of taxes were strictly prohibited. And the cultivation of ginseng was developed particularly with Gae Seong (開城) area as its center, becoming commercial agriculture. But after the opening of port, due to the successive forced unequal treaty the Jam Sam (潛蔘) by the Chiness and Japanese merchants had come to be provalent. Especially the Chung (淸) dynasty had smuggled out large amount of Hong Sam(紅蔘) exploiting its political superiority and also the Japanese merchants had caused problems of Jam Sam under the protection of Japanese government. In the 3rd chapter it was made clear that the ‘Po Sam Gong Sa Jang Jung (包蔘公詞章程)’ was not for the direct control of steaming and export of ginseng by government. and also was discussed about the problems of astablishment of ‘Sam Jung Sa Jang Jung (蔘政社章程)’ and foreign consignment sale of official ginseng (官蔘). The purpose of Sam Jung Sa (蔘政社) which were inaugur-ate d as Hong Sam monopoly company in 1899 under the NaeJang Won (內藏院) which was royal financial facilities was to cope with the intrusion by the merchants from Japan and Chung (淸), and to cope with the prevalency of Jam Sam (潛蔘) of post - KapO Gyong Jang (甲午更張), and so to consolidate the financial income of Royal House. As Sam Jung Sa (蔘政社) exported the ginseng which were purchased from Sam Po Min (蔘圃民) after steamed red through the Nae Jang Won (內藏院) the Royal House come to get the profit of export in addition to taxation on Sam Po Min (蔘圃民). But Dae Han Je Guk (大韓帝國) who had not any ships for exporting ginseng, had come to commit sales of it to foreign companys. During this process of consignment sales, the Royal House proposed to Sam Jung Mul San (三井物産) of Japan that the Jam Sam (潛蔘) and reckless pilliage by the Japanese merchants be prohibited on the condition of consignment sales contract. But the Sam Jung Mul San (三井物産) tryed to monopolyze the consignment sales with the propose for excuse. In the 4th chapter, the actual states of Sam Po Min(蔘圃民) and the Hong Sam (紅蔘) monopoly policy of Dae Han Je Guk (大韓帝國) were discussed. By the beginning of Gwang Mu (光武) era, the speciality of ginseng cultivatous had developed considerably as the cultivation of ginseng become commercial agriculture. But the area of ginseng cultivation had decreased since 1900, and in 1905 it become almost decaying. These deteriorating phenomenon of ginseng cultivation was contradictory to commercial progress of soy bean and tabacco which were stimulated by the increase of export. Therefore when the Hong Sam (紅蔘) monopoly policy of Dae Han Je Guk (大韓帝國) was reviewed in its execution process, so many taxes were imposed piling up on another, in addition to the evil stratagem of government officials. Namely, it were not basically for the ginseng cultivators but for the enlargement of financial income of the Royal House, and so resulted interference to the development of commercial agriculture of ginseng cultivation.
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