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英·正祖의 科擧改革政策

英·正祖의 科擧改革政策
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Reform measures on the Examination System by Yongjo and Chongjo : a study on the royal decree on innovating the Examination System
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대학원 사회생활학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
本稿는 18C 英·正祖가 蕩平策을 유지하기 위해 실시한 科擧改革政策을 살펴보고자 한 것이다. 臣權 內의 勢力均衡을 의도적으로 조절하는 蕩平策의 실시를 通해 一黨執權의 閥閱政治下에서 弱化되었던 王權을 보다 强化한 英·正祖는 英祖 35年, 正祖 卽位年에 각각 科弊釐正淪音을 頒布하였다. 이것은 英祖와 正祖가 官職에 必要한 만큼의 能力있는 人材를 選拔 登用한다는 科擧 본래의 目的을 회복시켜 자신들이 추진하고 있던 蕩平策을 유지하려는 것이다. 그러나 英·正祖의 科擧改革政策 內容을 구체적으로 살펴본 결과 科擧 본래의 目的을 회복하기 위해 根本的으로 해결해야 했던 不定期試, 考試科目의 編成에 대한 政策은 소극적인 것에 그치고 말아, 이 根本的인 문제에서 파생되는 考試管理·考試節次上의 폐단을 해결하기 위해 마련하였던 改業策들은 모두 일시적이고 미봉적인 것에 지나지 않을 수 없었다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 英·正祖가 科擧改革政策 가운데 가장 根本的인 問題를 해결하는데 소극적일 수 밖에 없었던 것은 朝鮮前期와는 달리 集權體制가 해체되어 가는 과정에 있었던 당시의 상황에서 그 원인을 찾을 수 있겠다. 卽 政治 社會 經濟 등 보다 根本的이고 廣範圍한 社會構造的 改革이 함께 수반되지 않는 한 科擧의 폐단만을 제거하여 科擧 본래의 目的으로 회복시킬 수는 없었던 것이다. 결국 英祖와 正祖가 科擧改革政策을 통해 蕩平政局을 유지하려 하였던 의도는 실패로 끝나게 되었으므로, 正祖는 보다 적극적인 文體政策을 실시하여 자신의 蕩平政局을 유지시켜 나가게 되었던 것이다.;The primary object of the Examination System (科擧制) was to expand the opportunities to rise to official rank beyond the privileged Yangban society. Thus the King could directly control the bureaucrat by selected able men and thus strengthen the royal authority. Thus when the royal authority was strong, the Examination System was held fairly. But under the political dominance by one faction, the sons of certain dominant lineages monopolized the examinations, which were used to perpetuate their privileged class. This means that the standard of selection was not based on ability but the noble lineage. As a result, the party in power monopolized the Examination System and restricted the advance of the new rising bureaucrats who would be the axis for strengthening the royla authority. In consequence King Yongjo and Chongjo tried to strengthen the weakened royal authority through T'angp'yongch'aek(蕩平策) and promulgated the royal decree on innovating the Examination System. I researched the Yongjo's and Chongjo's reform measures on the Examination System and came to the following conclusion: Yongjo and Chogjo were passive in solving the fundamental problems; for example, abolishing the Irregular Examinations, and modification of the subject content, they carried out the concrete and realistic reform measures to redress evils in inspector, confusion of the entrance to the examination field, the undoing of the candidates, which were the problems derived from the fundamental problems. The reform measures were makeshift in so far as the fundamental problems were not solved. As a result, the reform measures on Examination System carried out by in Yongjo and Chongjo failed to attain the original objective of the Examination System. The reason why Yongjo and Chongjo were passive in solving the fundamental problems of the Examination System lied at then situation. Differently from the former half of the dynasty, Choson was in the midst of decentralizing process of administration System. That is, unless fundamental structural reform policy was performed, in the department of politics and socioeconomics, the original end of Examination System could not be attained with mere abolishing the evil of Examination. It was true to the Impartiality Doctrines (蕩平策) who emerged as dominant while carrying out the impartial policy. After the promulgation of the royal decree on innovating the Examination System, they also monopolized the pass to official status, and prevented the advance of new officials. Chongjo reflected on this point, and positively educated the elite not by the Examination System, but by the establishing the Palace Library (奎章閣) and through testing (策問) the students of Songgyungwan (成均館) and civil offices. Chongjo also created an atmosphere of learning centered on the Chinese Classics and the education of the elite so as to attain the objective of the Policy of Impartiality.
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