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1891年 長江流域敎案과 淸朝의 對應策

Title
1891年 長江流域敎案과 淸朝의 對應策
Other Titles
1891 Yangtse Valley Anti-Christian Movements and Ch'ing Court's Countermeasures
Authors
全愛蘭
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
장강유역교안청조대응책중국사반기독교운동
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
中國은 19世紀 후반기를 통하여 半植民地化의 深化와 함께 지속적인 反基督敎運動에 직면하였다. 反基督敎運動은 半植民地化의 深化에 대한 中國人의 독자적인 反外勢運動의 중요한 한 측면이라고 할 수 있다. 本 論文은 1891年 5月부터 9月 사이의 期間에 長江流域의 蕪湖·円陽·無錫·宜昌등지에서 연속적으로 일어난 反基督敎運動을 다루었다. 먼저 長江流域 敎案의 背景으로 西歐 資本主義 列强의 經濟的 침투와 周漢 등에 의한 反敎文書의 배포를 살펴 보았다. 1876年의 지부조약 이후 長江은 西歐 列强(특히, 英國)의 經濟的 침투의 통로가 되었으며, 列强의 침투가 심화됨에 따라 1890年경에는 생활기반을 잃은 失業遊民이 속출하였다. 이미 長江流域에서 활동하고 있던 秘密結社 哥老會 등은 이러한 遊民을 흡수하면서 독자적인 反淸·反基督敎運動을 전개하게 되었다. 또한 1890-92年 長江일대에는 守舊派 官紳 周漢 등에 의해 대대적인 反敎 宣傳物이 유포되었다. 이러한 反敎文書는 長江地域뿐만 아니라 全國으로 확산되어 민중의 反敎感情을 자극하였다. 1891年 5月, 安徽城의 蕪湖로부터 시작된 反基督敎운동은 곧 江蘇省의 6縣 및 湖北省의 武穴·宜昌등지로 확산되었다. 사건의 직접적인 계기는 모두 敎會의 육영당 운영에 대한 의심이었다. 그러나 사건이 발생하자 敎會 뿐 아니라 海關, 領事館 등 외국 관련의 모든 시설물과 인물이 공격의 대상이 되었다. 敎案이 발생하자 英國·프랑스·美國 등 列强 9개국은 강경한 砲艦政策으로 淸朝를 위협하였다. 淸朝는 즉각 주모자를 처벌하고 賠償金을 지불하였으며, 地方官을 問責함으로써 敎案을 수습하고 敎案과 利權이 연계되는 것을 피하려 하였다. 英國 등은 敎案의 주모자를 周漢 등 湖南神士로 보았으나 張之洞 등의 적극적인 노력으로 周漢은 보호되고 哥老會와 민중에게 책임이 돌려지게 되었다. 以上에 의해 本稿에서는 첫째, 敎案의 주도세력이 官紳이 아닌 哥老會였다는 점. 둘째, 長江流域敎案은 反基督敎운동이자 反外勢운동이었다는 점. 세째, 列强은 연합하여 강경한 砲艦정책으로 淸朝를 위협하여 敎案을 中國侵略의 수단으로 삼고 있었다는 점. 네째, 中國側 역시 敎案의 처리에 관해 독자적인 노력을 기울이고 있었다는 점 등을 확인할 수 있었다.;China was faced with the continuous anti-christian movements in company with the semi-colonization which prevailed through late 19th century. Anti-christian movements may be an important aspect of anti-foreign movements of Chinese to the semi-colonization. This paper deals with the anti-christian movements which continuously took place in the Yangtse valley(Wu-hu, Tan-yang, Wu-hsi, I-ch'ang, etc.) between May and September of 1891. First, this study will describe the distributions of anti-christian literatures led by Chou-han(周漢) and the economic. invasions of the Great Powers of western capitalistic countries for anti-christian movements in the Yangtse valley. After 1876 Chih-fu Treaty(지부조약), the Yangtse valley became an economic inflitration passage of the Western Great Powers(especially, England). Nonworkers out of employments were appeared in succession at the 1890's according as this inflitration was progressing. Thus, Ko-lao Hui(哥老會) which was alredy active as a secret society in the Yangtse valley performed it's own movement for anti-Ch'ing and anti-christian with absorbing these nonworkers. Anti-christian propaganda bills also were spread on a lgrge scale by Chou-han(周漢) and so on who were conservative officials in the Yangtse valley during from 1890 to 1892. These anti-christian literatures which were propagated all over China country as well as the Yangtse vallely incited the people to anti-christian feelings. Anti-christian movement arised from Wu-hu(蕪湖) of An-hwei(安徽) on May, 1891, immediately spread over 6 Hsien in Kiang-su(江蘇), Wu-sueh(武穴), and I-ch'ang(宜昌) in Hu-pei(湖北). The management of orphan asylum was a direct cause of these events. After that time, However, all foreigners and buildings related to foreign country such as customs and consulate as well as church were attacked and the Great Powers of 9 countries(England, France, America, Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia, Belgium, and Japan) threatened Ch'ing court through the strong gunboat policy. Ch'ing court instantly executed the punishments of the chief movers, the payments of reparations, and the reproofs of the local officials. Through these executions Ch'ing court intended to escape that foreign concessions were closely connected anti-christian movements and cope with this movements. Although Chou-han(周漢) and Hunan gentries were looked upon as the leaders of the movements according to the Great Powers, they were protected by the very energetic activities of Chang Chih-tung(張之洞), etc. and the responsibility was transfered to Ko-lao Hui(哥老會) and the people. Finally, the characteristics of anti-christian movements in the Yangtse valley drived from this study may be summarized as follows; (1) The initiative powers of anti-christian movements was not the gentry but Ko-lao Hui(哥老會). (2) Anti-christian movements in the Yangtse valley were the movements of anti-foreign as well as anti-christian. (3) The Great Powers which formed an union threatened Ch'ing court through the strong gunboat policy and anti-christian movements were utilized as a means for the invasions of China. (4) Ch'ing court also exerted the independent efforts for the managements of anti-christian movements.
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