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端緖와 認知負擔이 學齡前 兒童의 內的 原因推定에 미치는 影響
- 端緖와 認知負擔이 學齡前 兒童의 內的 原因推定에 미치는 影響
- Other Titles
- (THE) EFFECTS OF CUE AND COGNITIVE LOAD ON THE CHILDREN'S INFERENCE OF INTERNAL CAUSES
- 鄭明淑 .
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육심리학과
- 단자; 인지부담; 학령전 아동; 내적 원인
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 硏究는 學齡前 兒童들을 대상으로 첫째, 他人行動에 對한 原因把握 여부가 이들의 節減原理 使用에 미치는 影響을 端緖提示를 통해 檢證하고 둘째, 認知負擔 정도가 이들의 節減原理 使用에 미치는 影響을 究明하며 세째, 歸因過程에 관한 김정오와 김태련의 段階模型을 檢證하고자 하였다.
本 實驗에는 48名의 유치원 兒童들이 參與하었다. 兒童들은 4가지 實驗條件(無端緖·高認知負擔, 無端緖·低認知負擔, 有端緖·高認知負擔, 有端緖·低認知負擔)에 區劃無選配定되었다. 兒童들은 條件에 따라 假想的인 狀況에 대한 여섯가지 이야기를 듣고 이야기 주인공의 內的 動機의 强度를 推定하였다. 각 이야기는 兒童의 理解를 돕기 위해 그 內容을 表現하고 있는 그림과 함께 提示되었다.
질문에 대한 變量分析 결과 두 變因 즉 端緖變因과 認知負擔 變因이 각기 有義한 主效果를 나타냈다. 즉, 兒童들은 行動의 原因에 대한 端緖가 提示되거나 또는 認知負擔이 減少되었을 때에는 그렇지 않은 경우에 비해 각기 節減效果를 더 많이 보였다. 端緖가 提示되고 동시에 認知負擔이 減少된 條件에서는 100%의 節減效果를 보였다. 이 結果는 學齡前 兒童들이 基本的으로 節減原理를 使用할 수 있으며, 端緖提示 여부와 認知負擔 정도가 이들의 節減 原理 使用에 體系的인 影響을 주고 있음을 立證하는 것으로 解釋되었다. 특히 端緖變因과 認知負擔變因 間에 相互作用이 없었다. 이 결과는 두 變因이 段階模型上의 서로 다른 段階 즉, 解釋段階와 比較段階에 각기 獨立的으로 影響을 미치고 있음을 밝혀주는 것으로서 歸因過程에 관한 段階模型의 妥當性을 立證하고 있는 것으로 간주되었다.;The previous literature regarding the development of discounting principle of children in the causal attribution have shown discrepancies since Kelley(1972) first reported the concept "discounting principle" - the role of a given cause in producing a given effect is discounted if other plausible causes are also present. This study was made to examine, first, the influence that the grasping of causes of other's behavior had on the use of discounting principle of preschool children, second, the influence that the cognitive load had on it. It was also intended to test the validity of the stage model of the attribution processes.
The present study was made on the hypotheses that preschool children could use the discounting principle and that cognitive load imposed by the task would have the influence on them. It was supposed that the discrepancies of the results of previous experiments would be fundamentally due to not distinguishing children's use of discounting principle with their grasping of the possible causes of a behavior. It was supposed, in other words, that preschool children could use the principle if they could understand the right reasons of a given behavior.
48 kindergartners participated in this experiment. They were assigned by blocked randomization to the four experimental conditions: cue-high cognitive load, cue-low cognitive load, no cue-high cognitive load, and no cue-low cognitive load. Children were told six hypothetical stories accompanied by relevant pictures, according to their conditions. They were asked to estimate and compare the degrees of protagonists' internal motives to do a behavior, and were instructed to choose the one who wanted more to do that behavior on his own decision.
The analysis of variance was carried out on the subjects' responses to the question. Children in cue or low cognitive load condition produced more discounting effect than those in no cue or high cognitive load condition did. Especially, 100% of children in cue-low cognitive load condition showed that they could use the discounting principle systematically. That is to say, the results showed they could use the principle only when they could understand the causes of a behavior. These support, therefore, the hypotheses that children's use of discounting principle has got to be distinguished with their grasping of the possible causes of a behavior, that they can use the principle if they can grasp the reasons for a behavior, and that the discrepancies of the results of previous experiments are due to passing over this point.
It was also revealed that the cognitive load required by the task functioned as a significant variable and it had much influence on children's use of discounting principle in the attribution processes. This result of the present experiment supports Shatz's report(1977) on the influence of the cognitive load.
Two variables, cue and cognitive load factors, showed no significant interaction between them. It suggests that these two factors affect each different stage independently.
It's supposed that the presentation of cue functions in the stage of interpretation and the cognitive load functions in the stage of comparison. The above facts are interpreted as the evidence in support of the stage model of causal attributional processes in children.
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