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1930년대 여성작가의 여성문제 인식에 관한 연구

Title
1930년대 여성작가의 여성문제 인식에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on Recognition on Women's Issues of Women Writers in the 1930's : With the Special Reference to Ms. Kang, Kyung-Ae, Paek, Sin-Ae and Park, Hwa-Sung
Authors
이영숙
Issue Date
1987
Department/Major
대학원 여성학과
Keywords
1930년대여성작가여성문제강경애백신애박화성
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The purposes of this thesis are, first, to portray women's life in the 1930's through the content analysis on the works of three contemporary women writers - Kang, Kyung-Ae, Paek, Sin-Ae, and Park, Hwa-Sung. The three women were selected because of their works depicted well various phases of the time as well as the features of people's lives in the middle of colonial rule by Japan, even though materials on women are rarely existed. The excavation of material on women through analyses of literary works is thought to be a significant effort as a method of studies on women in the time of the facts that all works of arts are a product of the time and, particularly, literary works are reflecting varied aspects of the society and people's lives of the time. The second purpose of this paper is to examine and survey the development of social consciousness on the three writers' women's liberation through the content analyses on their works. It is because literary works are also a product of the writers' spirits and have characteristics which the works can never be separated from the writers' consciousness, senses of value and views of the world. The third purpose is to re-evaluate the three women writers who have not been properly evaluated by the indifferent prejudices and biases of the past literary researchers in its male-centered environment. This study, with such plural purposes to highlight by examining and re-evaluating the women's consciousness as well as their works, was carried out in the broad frame of mutually connected three factors - time - writer - and work. The 1930's, the background of their works, was marked by the enforced exploitation and coercion against Chosun Colony with Imperial Japan's plunging in the so-called " 15 Year War" system right after the Manchurian War in 1931. Japan was busy blocking and suppressing the independent development of Chosun people (Korean) across the country by means of establishing bases for military supply in Korea and Japanization of Korean people as well. In these circumstances, Chosun had to suffer (drastic) social changes: that is, 1) the division of class in the rural society came to be strengthened by reducing the numbers of free farming and on the contrary, increasing those of leased farming and landowners. 2) the numbers of fire-field farmers, emmigrants to overseas, the unemployed and the poverty-stricken were increased. 3) the industrial disasters became more frequently caused by worse labor conditions contrasted with the rapid increase of laborers. Therefore, the right literature in such circumstances can be depicted as a work artistically unified with anti-feudal, modern consciousness and anti-imperialistic nationalism. In this respects the three women writers - Kang, Kyung-Ae, Paek, Sin-Ae, and Park, Hwa-Sung - can be highlighted. By analyzing the content of their works, it can be found that all of them accused the oppressed social structure against the mass through describing realistically women whose lives were located at the lowest in the suppressed colonial policies and economic structure. Meanwhile, in examining writers' social consciousness, the works of Kang, Kyung-Ae and paek, Sin-Ae showing clearer characteristics/tendency were concentrated on examining and comparing. As a result, Kang, Kyung-Ae understood the reasons of women's oppression as a matte of class, while Paek, Sin-Ae grasped them as that of sexuality. Accordingly, for a solution on it, Kang suggested to be emancipated from class in her work and Paek urged to be free from patriarchy. Women's issues/problems in the 1930's should be discussed in the context of patriarchy, class and the state. Therefore these two writers can be said to be in a mutual supporting relations in the sense. The fact that the works of the modern writers are hardly found the recognition of women's liberation as much as those women writers in the 1930's on the respect gives impetus to modern writers' awakenness. And it also demonstrated the three women's capacity. When we consider a function of literature as an effort to overcome the inequal relations of the rule and the ruled by identifying the exiting inequality and oppression in our lives, the matter of women's liberation can be said to be a basic concern and a task of literature, which should be pursued by both sexes, men and women. From this point of view, a further and continuous study on literary works of women writers is urgent apart from those in the 1930's. In other words, it is hoped and expecting this kind of work should be actively conducted for re-examining and reevaluating women writers from the past to the present as they have been from a new outlook, feminist perspective.;이 논문의 목적은 식민지시대의 시대상, 생활상이 명확하게 반영되고 있는 강 경애, 백 신애, 박 화성, 세 여성작가의 작품 분석을 통하여 1930년대 여성들의 생활상을 자료로 제시함과 동시에 이 시대 여성해방에 대한 작가의 사회의식의 발전적 측면을 고찰하고, 남성우월주의가 개입되어져온 한국 문단의 공간에서 제대로 인식되지 못하고 있는 세 여성작가를 재평가하는 것이다. 우선 서론에서는 이 논문의 목적과 자료선택 과정 및 연구관점에 대해 논의하였다. 제 Ⅱ장에서는 1930년대 성격 규정과 더불어 시대적 배경 속에서 문학과 문인의 역할을 논의해봄으로써 당시 문단의 상황을 평가하고, 세 여성작가가 재평가받아야 하는 근거를 제시하였다. 제 Ⅲ장에서는 작품 이해를 돕기 위해, 또 작가들의 삶을 통해 당시 지식인 여성들의 생활에 대한 자료를 제시하기 위해 수필 등의 보조자료를 통하여 세 작가에 대한 전기적 고찰을 했다. 이 논문의 본론인 제 Ⅳ장의 작품분석은 다시 다음과 같이 구분된다. A절에서는 등장인물들을 연령, 학력, 출신지 및 출신계층, 직업, 결혼관계 등의 변수로 분석해본 결과, 작가들이 신여성과 더불어 식민지사회경제구조 속에서 중층적인 억압을 받던 하층여성들을 중점적으로 다루고 있음이 도출되었다. B절과 C절에서는 1930년대 사회적 존재 양태에 따른 여성들의 생활상 및 문제가 추출되었으며 또한 여성작가들이 계층별 여성문제에 대한 인식과 더불어 결혼, 가족, 성이 여성들에게 보편적인 억압 기제로 작용한다는 인식을 가지고 있음이 분석되었다. D절에서는 작가들의 현실대응양식을 민족, 계급, 성 문제로 나누어 분석해본 결과 작가들이 반제국주의 및 반봉건주의의 저항의식을 작품에 깊이 내포하고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 또한 이 절에서는 각 작가별로 작품세계의 특징을 부각시키기 위해 작가 비교가 행해졌다. E절에서는 D절에서 나타난 작가의 차이점을 구체적으로 작품을 통해 재분석해봄으로써, 여성문제 인식에 있어서의 작가별 차이가 부각됨과 동시에 작품세계의 특징이 파악되었다. 강 경애는 여성 억압의 원인을 계급문제로 파악하여 계급해방을, 백 신애는 성문제로 파악하여 가부장제로부터의 해방을 작품 속에서 추구하고 있다. 마지막으로 제Ⅴ장에서는 지금까지의 분석을 논문의 세가지 목적에 따라 요약, 정리한 결론이 제시된다. 세 여성작가는 식민지 사회구조 속에서 억압의 최하위에 위치하던 여성들의 삶을 사실적으로 작품화하여, 민중을 탄압하는 식민지 정책과 경제구조를 고발하고 있을뿐만 아니라, 시대가 요구하는 지식인여성상을 제시, 당시 신여성들의 사회의식을 각성시킴으로써 반제, 반봉건의 저항의식을 작품에 담고 있다는 점에서, 1930년대 지식인으로서의 문인들이 행해야 할 역할을 충실히 수행해낸 역량있는 작가로 재평가된다.
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