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大學生의 自我實現性과 自我槪念의 相關的 硏究
- 大學生의 自我實現性과 自我槪念의 相關的 硏究
- Other Titles
- (The) Effect of Self-Concept on the Self-Actualization Tendency of College Students
- 裵純卿 .
- Issue Date
- 대학원 교육심리학과
- 대학생; 자아실현성; 자아개념; 상관관계
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- The purpose of this study was to determine the variables of the influence of a self-concept on a tendency toward self-actualization and the actual presence of self-actualization characteristics through the use principally of a self-actualization scale which focuses on growth motivation, the type of motivation originally stressed by Maslow in this hierarchy of motives. Subjects for the study were college students who have been shown to be in the process of establishing a self-identity.
Accordingly, the present study attempted to shed light on the following areas:
1. The presence/absence of a correlation between tendency toward self-actualization and self-concept.
2. When considering the subscales of the Self-Actualization Inventory, the presence/absence of a high correlation between each of these categories and self-concept.
3. If high, middle, and low levels of self-actualization are distinguished, the type of self-concept which can significantly differentiate males and females.
4. The presence/absence of a significant relationship between college students' levels of self-actualization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the variables of sex, position in the family, profession/nonprofession of a religion, and parents' maximum level of educational attainment.
5. The presence/absence of a relationship between college students' levels of self-concept and the variables of sex, position in the family, profession/nonprofession of a religion, and parents' maximum level of educational attainment.
In order to examine the above-mentioned variables for possible correlational relationships, the Self-Actualization Scale (Kim Jae Un, Lee Kwang Ja 1977) and the Self-Concept Scale (Jung Won Shik 1965) were administered to 116 male and 121 female student and a correlation coefficient was computed for the two tests. On the basis of the scores obtained from the Self-Actualization Scale, the data of the male student group and the data of the female student group were each further divided into three groups corresponding to low, middle, and high levels of self-actualization; an analysis of variance was performed of the data obtained from these groups. The data were also divided along the dimensions of (a) sex, (b) position in the family, (c) profession/nonprofession of religion, and (d) parents' attained level of education; and four analyses of variance were conducted to analyze these variables in relation to the three levels of the self-actualization variable.
The results obtained were as follows:
1. The correlation coefficient between the Self-Concept Scale scores and the Self-Actualization Scale scores was found to be low but clearly significant(r=.29, P＜.01).
2. Among the subcategories of the Self-Actualization Scale, Existentiality and Nature of Man clearly showed no correlation with self-concept and Feeling Reactivity, Self-Acceptance, and Capacity for Intimate Contact revealed a very slight correlation, while all other subscales showed significant correlations with self-concept(r=.28-.47, P＜.01).
3. Significant differences emerged when the levels of self-actualization were compared with the following subscales of the Self-Concept Inventory by analysis of variance: (a) Self-Satisfaction, (b) Self-Behavior, (c) Personal Self, (d) Family Self, and (e) Social Self. The male students showed a difference only in the categories of Personal Self (F=3.89, P＜.05), however, while woman students manifested differences in the subscales of Self-Identity(F=4.09, P＜.05), Self-Satisfaction(F=20.14, P＜.01), Self-Behavior(F=4.95, P＜.01), Physical Self(F=7.08, P＜.01), Personal Self(F=16.02, P＜.01), Family Self(F=7.19, P＜.01), and Social Self(F=5.08, P＜.01).
4. Among the four personal background variable investigated, only parents' attained level of education revealed a significant difference with level of self-actualization(F=2.91, P＜.05).
5. Among the four personal background variables, the male and female groups, analyzed as a unit, showed a significant difference between only the sex variable and the self-concept scale(F=4.38, P＜.05).;本 硏究는 Maslow의 動機階層理論에서 重點的으로 다루어지고 있는 成長動機인 自我實現動機를 重視하여, 自我正體感이 確立되는 靑年期에 있는 大學生을 對象으로 하여, 自我槪念이 自我實現性에 미치는 영향과 自我實現과 關聯된 要因을 알아 보려는데 그 目的이 있다.
따라서 本 硏究에서 究明하고자 하는 問題는 다음과 같다.
1. 自我實現性과 自我槪念과는 어떠한 相關關係가 있는가?
2. 自我實現性을 下位構造別로 보았을 때 어떤 下位構造가 自我槪念과 높은 相關關係를 갖고 있는가?
3. 自我實現水準을 上中下 集團別로 구분해 보면, 어떤 自我槪念類型에서 男女集團別로 有意味한 差異가 나는가?
4. 自我實現水準은 大學生의 性別, 兄弟順位, 宗敎有無 및 父親의 敎育程度에 따라 有意味한 差異가 있는가?
5. 自我槪念水準은 大學生의 性別, 刑裁順位, 宗敎有無 및 父親의 敎育程度에 따라 有意味한 差異가 있는가?
이를 위해 本 硏究에서는 237名의 大學生을 對象으로 하여, 自我實現檢査(金在恩·李光子 1977)와 自我槪念檢査(鄭元植 1965)를 실시하여 두 檢査尺度의 相互相關度를 내고, 또 調査對象을 自我實現水準別로 男女 각각 上中下 集團으로 구분하여 變量分析을 했으며, 性別, 兄弟順位, 宗敎有無 및 父親의 敎育程度別로 구분하여, 각 要因別로 集團間의 變量分析을 했다.
그 結果 다음과 같은 事實이 發見되었다.
1. 自我槪念은 自我實現水準에 對하여 약하지만 분명히 영향을 준다.(r = .29, P＜.01)
2. 自我實現性의 下位構造中 「實存性」과 「人間觀」은 自我槪念과 相關이 없는 것으로 밝혀졌으며, 「感受性」, 「自己受容性」, 「包容性」과 自我槪念과는 거의 相關이 나타나지 않았으며, 그 이외의 細部構造와는 有意한 相關(r = .28~.47, P＜.01)을 보인다.
3. 自我實現 上中下 集團別로 보면 「自我受容」, 「自我行動」, 「性格的 自我」, 「家庭的 自我」, 「社會的 自我」에서 集團間에 有意한 差異가 나타났다. 그러나 男子集團은 「性格的 自我」에서만 集團間에 有意한(F = 3.89, P＜.05)차이를 보였으며, 女子集團에서는 「自我同一性」(F = 4.07, P＜.05), 「自我受容」(F = 20.14, P＜.01)「自我行動」(F = 4.95, P＜.01), 「身體的 自我」(F = 7.08, P＜.01), 「性格的 自我」(F = 16.02, P＜.01), 「家庭的 自我」(F = 7.19, P＜.01), 「社會的 自我」(F = 5.08, P＜.01)에서 集團間에 有意한 差異를 보였다.
4. 性別, 兄弟順位, 宗敎有無 및 父親의 敎育程度別의 4個變因中 「父親의 敎育程度」別만 4集團間의 自我實現水準에 有意한 差를 보였다.(F = 2.91, P＜.05)
5. 自我槪念과의 心理的 關係는 性別, 兄弟順位, 宗敎有無 및 父親의 宗敎程度別의 4個變因中 「性別」에서만 兩集團間의 意味있는 差異(F = 4.38, P＜.05)가 나타났다.
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