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新羅時代의 「將軍」에 關한 一考察

Title
新羅時代의 「將軍」에 關한 一考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Generals of Shilla
Authors
정경숙
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Keywords
신라시대장군통일전쟁한국역사
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구는, 新羅 初期부터 文聖王代까지 將軍에 임명된 구체적 인물들을, 「三國吏記」에서 추출·종합·분석함으로써, 新羅의 最高武官職이었던 將軍의 실체를 규명해 보고자 한 것이다. 먼저, 本橋의 머리말에서는 종래 新羅兵制에 대한 연구성과를 개관하고, 本稿의 연구목적을 밝혔으며, 第Ⅱ章에서는 中國 古代文款에 나타난 將軍에 대하여 살펴 보았다. 第Ⅲ章에서는, 新羅時代 將軍의 起源과 成立過程 그리고 그 性格에 대하여 고찰해 보았는데, 新羅 上古時代의 將軍은 王을 대신하여 對外征伐戰拿을 수행할 軍隊指據官의 필요성이 증가함에 따라 나타난 임시직으로서, 주로 王族 · 王妃族 등 유력세력집단의 구성원으로써 임명되었다. 그러나, 慈悲 · 照知庶立干代에 이르러, 王權이 强化되고, 제도가 정비됨에 따라, 伊飡(伊伐飡)이 점유하고 있던 行政 · 軍事權을 분리하고, 軍事權을 전담하는 將軍이 설치되었다. 眞興王代에 들어와서, 占領地에 州를 설치하고, 州마다에 停을 설치함으로써 비로소 停의 最高指揮官인 將軍이 발생했으며, 당시 州停의 將軍은 州의 長官인 軍主가 兼하게 되었다. 그리고 停 · 墮의 將軍에는 級飡一伊伐飡의 官位를 가진 眞骨만이 임명될 수 있었다. 第Ⅳ章에서는 통일전쟁 이후 將軍의 변화에 대하여 살펴 보았다. 우선 百濟 · 高句麗征伐을 위한 전국적민 규모의 軍團이 임시 편성되었던 통일전쟁기에는, 各 停 · 植의 將單의 數가 많아졌으며, 將軍의 칭호 역시 文武王 元年 이후 德管으로 바뀌고 있다. 또한 大軍團 편성시마다, 將軍들의 소속이 대부분 바뀌고 있으며, 上大等 · 中侍 · 兵部令 · 仕臣 등 고위관직자들이 將軍으로서 出征하고 있다. 이들 將軍들은, 통일전쟁기에 이룩한 군사적 업적으로 말미암아 통일 후에도 고위관직을 차지하고 정치적 지도력을 발휘하게 되었다. 그리하여, 中代 전제왕권을 확립하기 위하여, 文武 · 神文王은 將軍 출신의 유력자들을 제거하지 않을 수 없었다. 통일 이후 전쟁상태가 해소되어, 將軍의 중요성이 감소되었으나, 聖德 · 景德王代에는 渤海의 위협에 대처하려는 北方守備上의 목적에서 少數의 將軍이 다시 임명되었다. 그런데, 이러한 聖德 · 最德王代의 將軍은, 그 活動이 北方檢祭 등의 非戰鬪的인 것이었다는 점에서 三國統一 以前의 將軍들과의 상이점을 엿볼 수 있다. 中代 전제왕권을 타도하고 眞骨貴族勢力의 연립시대를 연 下代에는 이미 停 · 植의 군사조직이 봉괴되고 貴族들의 私兵 소유가 일반적인 현상으로 면모하였다. 그리하여 下代의 將軍들은, 국가의 軍事活勳에 있어서도, 국가의 군대가 아니라 그들 개인의 私兵을 거느리고 出戰하는 경향을 띠게 되었다. 또한 下代 元聖王系 내부의 왕위쟁탈전에 조력함으로써, 眞骨貴族이 아닌 미천한 신분에도 불구하고 將軍의 칭호를 갖는 예외적인 경우도 있었다.;This study is that the substances of the Generals as the highest military officers in Silla are examined closely by driving out, synthesizing, and analysed concrete figures to be appointed to the Generals from the early days of Silla to the days of King Mun-Soˇng ( 文聖王 ) in Samguk-sagi (三國吏記). First, in foreword of this study the achievement of study of former military system of Silia is outlined and the purpose of this study is made clear. In second chapter, the Generals appeared in Chinese ancient documents were examined. In third chapter, the origin of, organized process of, and the character of the Generals of Silla were examined. In Silla the Generals of the early ancient period had been provisionally appeared according to the increase of the necessity of army commander to perform the war of external conquest instead of the King. Those Generals had been appointed by the components of powerful influence group as the royal family and the queen's family. But to the days of Jabi Ma-rib-kan ( 慈悲麻立干 ) and Sogi Ma-rib-kan ( 照知麻立干 ), the power of King had been strengthened and the system had been fixed. According to this situation, administrative power and military force occupied by Ich'an ( 伊餐) had been devided and Generals taking sole charge of military force had been established. Up to the day of the king Chinhung ( 竟興王 ), for the first time the General of the highest ruler at Jong (停) had been made by that Chou ( 州 ) had been established at the occupied area and Jong had been established at every Chou. At that time Koonju ( 軍州 ), the minister of Chou, had performed in addition to the General of Chou, Jong. Only Chin'gol (眞骨) that had had official ranks from kuˇpcha'n (級餐) to Ipoˇlcha'n (伊伐飡) had been appointed to the Generals of Jong and Tong ( 憶 ). In fourth chapter changes of Generals were examined after the war of the union. First of all, Generals of every Jong, Tong had been increased at the war time at which the corps of the national scale had been provisionally organized to conquer Koguroe ( 高句麗 ), Baekje ( 百濟 ). Also, the name of the General had been changed to Tsung-kuan ( 德管 ) after the first year of king Munmu ( 文武王 ). At every organization of the large corps the belonging of the Generals had been almost changed. Many higher officers like Sang-daeduˇng ( 上大等 ), Chungse' ( 中待 ), Ping-Pu Ryung ( 兵部令 ), Sa-sin ( 仕臣 ) etc., had departed for the front as the Generals. These Generals had occupied higher government service after the union and had exhibited their political leadership, because of the military achievement acquired at the war time of the union. Therefore King Munmu and King Sinmun ( 神文王 ) had had to get rid of powerful Generals so as to establish the power of the autocrat in the middle ancient period. ( 中古 ) The necessity of the Generals had been being missing because the situation of the war had been dissolved after the union. But at the days of King Kyong-dak ( 景德王 ), King Sang-dak ( 聖德王 ) some Generals had been appointed again to the purpose of northern defence to meet the menace of Po-hai ( 渤海 ). These Generals' actions at the days of Kyong-dak, Sang-dak had been non-fighting as northern investigation and prosecution. At this point of view the distinction between Generals' character before the union and that ter the union is shown in this study. At the late piriod (下代), when the absolute monarchy of the middle piriod was overthrown and aristocatic classl Chin'gol, held real power, the military organization of Jong and Tang had been destructed and the possession of private armies of the aristocracy came to the front as a General phenomenon. Therefore Generals of the late period tended to go to the war with not public soldiers but private armies. The exceptional cases came to appear, that is just the humble class, not the aristocracy, Gin'gol, were able to be conferred the title of General, by assisting the dispute for the throne.
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