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11세기 Flanders 商業都市의 起源에 대한 一考察

11세기 Flanders 商業都市의 起源에 대한 一考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Origin of Commercial Cities in Flanders in the Eleventh Century Europe
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대학원 사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
中世都市의 起源은 19세기 이후 史家들의 주요한 연구대상이 되어 왔다. 이는 農村經濟와는 다른 都市經齋를 초래하여 중세자체의 전환점이 되었으며, 또한 自然經濟로부터 資本主義經濟로의 轉移를 가능하게 함으로써 유럽近代文明의 礎石이 되었다. 이러한 점에서 중세도시의 기원에 대한 硏究가 활발한 이유를 찾을 수 있을 것이다. 本稿는 중세도시의 기원을 法制史的 觀點이 아닌 經濟史的 觀點에서 보았으며, 이러한 양상이 뚜렷한 11세기 Flanders를 연구대상으로 삼았다. Flanders는 11세기의 商業의 復活을 경험하면서 商業都市로 成長했다. Flanders商業部市는 職業商人階級이 登場하여 faubourg에 定着하면서 형성되었다. faubourg는 기존의 城인 civitas주변에서 商人階級이 성장하면서, 그들에 의해 수립된 도시의 胚芽였다. 이처럼 상업도시는 상인에 의해 주도되고, 경제적 성격이 지배적인 도시를 일컫는다. faubourg에 기반을 둔 Flanders 상업도시는 성격상 二元的이었다. Flanders를 상업도시로 특징지운 또 다른 요소는 자체의 毛織物産業에 있었다. 모직물산업은 Flanders를 전유럽의 중심지로 변화시켰다. 결국, Flanders에 형성된 商業都市는 11세기의 상업의 부활을 통해 자극을 받고, 상인계급이 faubourg에 거주함으로써 이루어졌다.;The origin of medieval cities has been a important subject for research of historians since the end of Nineteenth, Century. The formation of medieval cities resulted in the growth of urban economy which differed from the rural economy of the medieval age and became a turning point of the same era. Furthermore, it made possible the transition from a natural economy to a capitalistic economy, which became a founding stone for modern European civilization. The reason for the study in the origin of medieval cities lies in the fact that the rise of urban economy became opening wedge for the capitalistic economy developed in Europe. The present paper tried to survey the issues on the origin of medieval cities from an economical perspective and not from a constitutional or institutional perspective. For the purpose of the study, the Eleventh Century Flanders was chosen. The commercial city was formed by professional commercial class who emerged and settled in "faubourg". "Faubourg" can be said to be an embryo of. a city established by a commercial class who gathered and grew as a commercial class in the vicinity of an existing castle, that is "Roman civitas." As mentioned above, a commercial city was initiated by merchants and dominated by economic characteristics. The commercial city of Flanders based on "faubourg" was dualistic in their nature and the other factor which marked Flanders as a commercial city was its wool industry. The wool industry rendered Flanders to become a center of its kind dominanting all over Europe. Consequently, commercial city formed in Flanders was stimulated through the revival of commerce and trade in the Eleventh Century, and it was completed by the merchants who formed “faubourg.”
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