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마르셀 뒤샹의 작업에서 제시된 비논

마르셀 뒤샹의 작업에서 제시된 비논
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(The) Study on ‘Illogic’ present by Marcel Duchamp
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대학원 미술사학과
마르셀 뒤샹Marcel Duchamp비논미술사학
이화여자대학교 대학원
This study is focused on the illogical aspect found in Marcel Duchamp's attitude to the art. He purposely used the principle of the organized chance for revealing illogic through the art and set up the artist-the art object-the audience that the art consisted of as a kind of 'Rendezvous' in the illogical relation. The approach to the illogic in the fine art began from the basis on the denial of Rational Thought based on the causal relation. This attitude had appeared in the theme from Mediaeval canvas to Cubism, and had realized in the non-causality. In the contemporary art 'Illogic' was enlarged to the principle of the making art, and it appeared in Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Neo-realism, and the various art works which are going on. Ducbamp's interest on 'Illogic' also stared from the self-examination of the logical thought that had lost the originally critical mind and had fallen in the stereotype. As Michel Sanouillet, who is the curator of the Philadelphia Museum which collected the most of Duchamp's works, said, the development of his works didn't look like the lineally chronological growth, but looked like filling up the whole canvas like the process of play of the Mosaic. I can notice that his attitude to making art was leaded by the principle of 'Illogic' among many tendencies. In the traditional fine art the artist-the making subject expressed his experience in the canvas and let the audience-the viewing subject accept as it is, that is, the logic relation between the subject and the object was the fundamental forms. But Duchamp researched the illogic through non-causal relation between the subject and the object in the art world. He made the mechanical drawings and the various works applied to the chance as the principle of the making in the way of cutting the logically causal relation between the artist and the art work, and eliminating the individuality of the artist from the work. He was also up to illogic in the way that when he presented the 'Readymade' he proposed that first the commercial object be chosen based on the 'Indifferent state about the aesthetics' and the original utility be eliminated from it by giving it illogical meaning that couldn't be understood in the name of common sense. Especially he marked the viewing subject who finished the art work in terms that the audience put his unexpected recognition into the commercial object lost the original utility by the artist. His concept of the art became the ground of the 'Theory of the Art Institute' and contributed to the re-definition of the art in the contemporary aesthetics. In the fine art, the interest on 'Illogic' has become the subject studied by many other artists. They treated it in the existing art concept and just made the development of the art world in quantity. However, Duchamp made the transformation of the art concept in quality by applying 'Illogic' to art work and even the fundamental factors that constitute the art-the artist, the art work, the audience, and renovating the definition of the art concept. Therefore it was not excessive evaluation about him that at last by his work the art world could accept the new attitude of the art that existing art world couldn't accept, so the field of the art advanced toward the contemporary art.;본 연구에서는 심성계발 프로그램을 적용한 집단상담이 여고생의 자아존중감과 사회성 및 욕구에 미치는 영향에 대하여 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 문제는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 집단상담을 받은 학생들은 집단상담을 받기 전에 비해 자아존중감이 긍정적인 방향으로 의미있게 변화할 것인가? 둘째, 집단상담을 받은 학생들은 집단상담을 받기 전에 비해 사회성이 긍정적인 방향으로 의미있게 변화할 것인가? 셋째, 집단상담을 받은 학생들은 집단상담을 받기 전에 비해 욕구가 긍정적인 방향으로 의미있게 변화할 것인가? 본 연구에서는 집단상담의 효과를 알아보기 위해 여자상업고등학교 2학년 학생 9명을 대상으로 실시되었다. 이 연구집단에는 집단상담을 1회에 100분 내지 120분씩 6주간 8회를 실시하였다. 집단상담프로그램은 김여옥(1977)의 심성계발프로그램, 청소년 대화의 광장(1995)의 또래상담자 훈련프로그램, 이형득(1982)의 자기성장을 위한 프로그램을 기초로 자기이해, 타인이해, 인간관계 개선을 목표로한 내용들을 단계적으로 재구성하여 특별활동시간을 이용해 실시하였다. 집단상담의 효과를 알아보기 위한 측정도구로는 Rogenberg(1965)가 계발하고 김문주(1984)가 번안한 자아존중감검사와, 황정규(1965)가 제작한 욕구진단검사(서울:코리안테스팅)와 인성진단검사(서울:코리안테스팅)의 하위영역 중 사회성 척도를 사용하였다. 본 연구의 자료분석 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 집단상담 실시 후 자아존중감에서 학생들은 집단상담을 받기 방향 으전과 비교해 볼 때 의미 있는 차이를 보여 집단상담이 자아존중감을 긍정적로 변화시키는데 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 집단상담을 받은 후 학생들의 사회성에서 사전, 사후검사 점수가 유의미한 차이를 보여 집단상담을 통해 여고생의 사회성을 향상시키는데 효과가 있다는 결과를 나타냈다. 셋째, 집단상담을 받은 후 학생들의 사전, 사후검사에서 욕구진단검사의 하위영역 중 친애의 욕구에서만 의미있는 차이를 보여 집단상담은 친애의 욕구를 향상시키는 데 효과가 있었다. 위 결과들을 종합해 볼 때 본 연구에서 실시한 집단상담이 여고생들의 자아존중감을 높히고, 사회성을 향상시키며, 욕구진단검사 중 친애의 욕구를 긍정적 방향으로 변화시키는데 효과적이었다.
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