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Karlheinz Stockhausen의 이론적 paradigm에 근거한 음악어법연구

Karlheinz Stockhausen의 이론적 paradigm에 근거한 음악어법연구
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(A) Study of k. Stockhausen's musical Expression and paradigm
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대학원 음악학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
한 시대의 음악은 그 시대의 본질적 이념, 실체들과 상호 유기적 연관을 가지며 변화한다. 20C는 다변성과 다원성으로 대표되는 시기로 이전과는 다른 다양한 음악들이 공존하는데, K. Stockhausen(1928.8.22~ )은 전음렬주의(total serialism) 이후의 현대음악 조류 안에서 독자적이고 독특한 음악영역을 구축해 나감으로써 '새로운 음악'으로의 혁신적 이정표를 제시한 인물이다. Stockhausen은 그의 철학적 사고에 의한 여러 종류의 이미지, 은유, 모델들을 기초로 이에 다양한 방법, 재료, 원리를 적용하여 곡으로 구체화시켰다. 그는 음(pitch)에만 한정적으로 사용되던 12음기법을 지속시간(duration), 강도(dynamics), 속도(tempo), 아티큘레이션(articulation) 등의 다양한 매개변수에로 확대 적용했고, 그 구성을 일련의 비율들로 통제시켰다. 또한, 이 다양한 매개변수들로부터 그의 곡의 구성원리이자 요소인 점(point), 집단(group), 순간(moment), 진행(process), 공식(formula)을 도출해냈으며, 기계라는 새로운 매개체를 사용하는 전자음악에의 새로운 가능성도 제시했다. 이 논문은 그가 시도했던 다양한 음악들을 이론적으로 체계화시키고, 그 이론적 paradigm을 토대로 작곡가의 사상과 이를 투영하는 작품을 다각적으로 조망하고 분석함에 그 목적이 있다.;Music paces along with the substantial ideology, circumstances of the times maintaining an organic relationship that is indissoluble. The 20th century was representative of variety and pluralim in every aspect. K. Stockhausen has been competent for satisfying all demands of the times and his music and ideas have influenced a new generation of composers in every decade since the fifties. The 12 tone technique, originated with A. Schoenberg, was followed by serialism which endowed order and right to atonal music. However, it was more of less alien from Stockhausen’s way of handling parameters. his serialism was not a simple technique of putting sets of pitches, duration, and dynamics into series, but a more general method for expanding and creating various parameters, such as time, freedom, space,.....etc. Stockhausen’s compositions are based on his ideas concerning many images, metaphors, and models, of which the most important are the vibrating world, the continuum, the spiral, and the galaxy. The basis of almost all of his was composed of these four main conception. His working methods in musical composition can generally by analyzed into three categories ; 'working principles', 'working materials', and 'construction principles'. Stockhausen’s working principles are serialism and intuition, his working materials range from point to formula, and his construction principles are serialization and formula projection. Especially, his working materials -point, group, moment, process, formula- are not only the elements but also the form itself reflecting his philosophy and organizing his musical scheme. the sound parameters are crystallized into points, then points can be combined into a group, in which the points are connected with each other by an overall and combined quality. when points and groups are organized together, a new dimension, a form whose main concept is moment comes out. the next stage whose main parameter involved in change is process, being a musical structure in which elements are transformed. the last one, formula reflects the image of a galaxy and includes all former stages. instead of crystallizing parameters into elements, elements are crystallized into formulas. Despite criticism as to his focusing on extremely technical and philosophical pointing out a possible negligence of music itself, it would be fair to say that his writing contains consistency that is maintained throughout his work. He takes notice of every possibility and relevance among all the factors in respect to music and all of his works account for his philosophy of this world and music to the full extent.
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