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한국여성의 화장문화(化粧文化)에 관한 연구

Title
한국여성의 화장문화(化粧文化)에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Korean Women's Cosmetic Culture : With focus on the Beauty Articles of Women's magazines
Authors
최영경
Issue Date
1997
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Keywords
한국여성화장문화여성잡지미용기사
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 논문은 화장의 개념과 한국화장문화의 변천을 고찰하고 한국 여성잡지에 나타난 미용기사의 기사량, 주제, 여성의 화장 스타일을 통하여 한국화장문화의 현황을 실증적으로 분석하여 시각적으로 한국여성의 화장유형을 제시하는데 그 목적이 있다. 본 연구를 수행하기 위하여 문헌을 통한 이론적 연구방법과 잡지의 내용분석을 통한 실증적 연구방법을 이용하였다. 우리 나라는 상고시대의 단군신화에서부터 화장문화가 있었다는 흔적을 볼 수있다. 전통적으로 육체와 정신이 동일하다는 영육일치사상(靈肉一致思想)과 하얗고 티없는 피부를 선호하는 백색피부호상사상(白色皮膚好喪思想)이 깊이 뿌리 박혀 얼굴을 단정히 가꾸고 몸을 청결히 유지하는 것을 매우 중요하게 생각해왔다. 이것을 단장(端粧)이라고 했는데 우리 나라 고유의 화장의 의미라 할 수있다. 한편 기생이나 궁녀 등 특수계층은 백색 분가루를 발라 얼굴을 희게 하고 입술을 붉게 칠했는데 이것을 야용(治容)이라 하였으며 일반부녀자는 꺼려하였다. 고려시대에는 특수계층이 하는 화장을 분대화장(粉黛化粧)이라고 하고 기생을 분대라고 부르기도 하였다. 조선시대까지는 일반부녀자의 단장과 특수계층이 하는 분대화장으로 화장의 이원화 현상이 일어났고 일반인들이 짙은 화장에 대해 갖는 반감은 현대까지 이어졌다. 개화기에 일본으로부터 화장이라는 말과 함께 크림을 바른 후 분을 바르는 화장법이 전래되어 해방 후에도 계속 되었다. 1970년대에 들어와 서양에서 들어온 메이크 업이 대중적·보편적이 되었다. 특히 1971년에는 국내 최초로 메이크 업 캠페인을 실시했는데 이 메이크 업은 입체감을 주기 위하여 얼굴에는 하이라이트를 주어 얼굴의 윤곽을 강조하였다. 이 때부터 우리 나라의 화장문화는 현재의 양상으로 존재하기 시작하였다. 분석잡지를 선정하기 위해 국내 여성잡지의 변천을 '가명잡지'가 창간된 1906년부터 연도별로 살펴보았다. 언론기본법 개정 이후 잡지등록제로 세분화·전문화·다양화된 국내 여성잡지를 특성별로 나누어 분류하였다. 분석잡지는 보편적인 화장문화 규명에 맞게 젊은 여성층이 선호하고 패션기사가 많은 여성종합지 중에서 선택하였다. 역사가 깊고 보편화·대중화된 국내 여성종합지인 '여성동아' 국내 최초의 라이선스 여성종합지인 '엘르'를 선정하였다. 분석시기는 언론기본법 개정 직후인 1987년부터 10년간으로 하였다. '여성동아'와 '엘르'의 미용기사를 기사량, 주제, 화장유형별로 내용 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 분석잡지 미용기사의 기사량은 기사면수와 기사건수로 나누어 추이를 살펴보았는데 기사면수와 기사건수는 여성동아와 엘르 모두 확연한 증가의 추세를 보였다. 여성동아는 월평균 기사면수가 1987년의 4.7면에서 1997년에는 26.8면으로 월평균 기사건수는 0.9건에서 3.8건으로 증가의 추세를 보였다. 엘르는 창간해인 1992년에 월평균기사면수가 6.5면이었는데 1997년에는 37면으로 증가했고 월평균기사건수는 1.6면에서 6.4면으로 증가했다. 둘째, 분석잡지에 미용기사 내용의 주제는 내용에 따라 '화장', '피부관리', '헤어', '건강 및 다이어트', '미용제품', '미용행사 및 업계 동향', '기타'의 7항목으로 나누어 내용분석을 했다. 먼저 기사의 면수를 보면 화장(40.7%), 헤어(14.9%), 피부관리(14.7%), 건강 및 다이어트(10.4%), 기타(8.5%), 제품(7.6%), 미용행사 및 업계동향(3.5%)의 차례로 나타났다. 기사의 건수는 화장(34.3%), 헤어(12.8%), 피부관리(11.7%), 건강 및 다이어트(11.3%), 기타(10.6%), 제품 (10.1%), 미용 행사 및 업계 동향(9.4%)순서로 보여졌다. 셋째, 여성잡지 미용기사에 나타난 화장유형을 분류하기 위하여 화장관련 기사 중에 가로15cm, 세로 20cm이상 크기의 사진자료를 중심으로 살펴보았다. 분류유형은 '자연스런 화장', '고전적인 화장', '한국적인 화장', '입체적 색조 화장', '평면적인 색조 화장'의 5개의 항목으로 나누어 보았다. 분류유형은 컴퓨터로 합성한 한국인의 미인 얼굴을 도입하여 Macintosh의 photo-shop프로그램을 이용하여 유형에 따라 다음과 같이 시각적으로 제시하였다. ◁표삽입▷ (원문을 참조하세요);This dissertation intends to visually present a recent trends of Korean cosmetic culture by recapturing the concept of make-up and by examining the changing attitude toward make-up. In doing so, a quantitative study of the articles appeared in various magazines and journals which dealt with make-up and its related topics was performed. The analysis of the specific topics on make-up and their typological patterns was also attempted. In Korea, we can trace back the existence of cosmetic culture as early as ancient times of Dangun Myth. Rooting from the traditional idea of the sameness of the spirit and the body, spotless white complexion was highly valued, and it was considered as the paramount factor of the beauty. This notion of beauty was reflected in women's daily lives as keeping their face and body neat and clean. This is what we traditionally call 'danjang'(a dressing-up of face and body), the very make-up in the traditional sense. On the other hand, there is also an expression called 'yayong'(a gaudy dressing-up of face and body) which refers to the special way of make-up of the professional women called 'kiseng' and women who served in the court. These women made their face white by applying white powder and colored their lips bright red, which were disapproved and distasted by ordinary women. In Koryo Dynasty, this special way of make-up using white powder was called 'pundaiwhajang'(powdered make-up), and the 'kiseng' were accordingly called 'bundai'. Up until Yi Dynasty, there existed dual ways of make-up, one called 'danjang' and the other called 'pundaiwhajang'. Even today, partly because of this old time influence, the latter type of make-up is not appreciated in the society and many people feel strongly against thick make-up. In early 20th century with an enlightened civilization, a new way of make-up together with a new word 'whajang' were introduced from Japan. In this new make-up technique, women learned to use cream as a base before using powder. In 1970, the western style of make-up was approved in public and popularized. Especially in 1971, the first pioneering make-up campaign in Korea was held. In this campaign, the focus of the make-up was made toward the cubic effect of the face coupled with its clean-cut feature. Accordingly, the make-up was instructed to heighten these two effects. It is not too much to say that from this event on, the make-up trends has gone through the similar path up to the present time. To select the most appropriate women's magazines for the present study, a rough review of most of the women's magazines from 1906 to present was performed. The year 1906 is significant because in this year, the first women's magazine in Korea 'Kadyeong Chapji'(Kadyeong magazine) was published. After the amendment of journalism law in 1987, the domestic magazines were more specialized and further diversified. Therefore, a careful categorization of domestic women's magazines were performed based on their specific character. Depending on its focus, women's magazines were classified into women's general magazines, women's culture magazines, women's living magazines, women's fashion magazines, and women's cosmetic magazines. Women's general magazines were further classified into domestic one and the foreign licensed one; women's living magazines were further classified into magazines of wedding, childcare, and interior decoration; women's cosmetic magazines were further classified into magazines of hair and make-up. In selecting magazines for the present study, women's general magazines were first considered among others, for they not only deal with make-up related topics generously, but also are cherished especially among young women. 'Yeoseong Donga' and 'Elle' were eventually chosen through careful evaluation. The former is also recognized as the most popular magazine with its long history of publication, and the latter is known as the first domestically licensed women's general magazine. The time span of these magazines dealt in this study are 10 years, starting from 1987, when the amendment of journalism law was first activated. The followings are the outcomes of the study resulting from the quantitative examination of the articles, classification of the topics and the typologization of the make-ups. First, in quantitative examination of the relevant articles, their frequency and their occupying pages were counted. In both aspects, a quantitative increase were positively observed. In 'Yeoseong Donga', the average monthly occupying pages increased from 4.7 pages in 1987 to 26.8 pages in 1997; the frequency rate increased from 0.9 to 3.8. In the case of 'Elle', the occupying pages of the relevant articles in the first publication on 1992 amounted 6,5 pages, which increased to 37 pages in 1997; the frequency increased from 1.6 to 6.4. Second, in investigating the topics of the articles, they were classified into seven categories, specifically as make-up, skincare, hair, health and diet, cosmetic products, cosmetic events and industrial trends, and the rest. In respect to the occupying pages, make-up marked the first with 40.7%. The followings are the percentage of the other categories in the order of higher number: hair, 14.9%; skincare, 14.7%; health and diet, 10.4%; the rest, 8.5%; cosmetic products, 7.6%; cosmetic events and industrial trends, 3.5%. In respect to the frequency of the articles, make-up again marked the first with 34.3%, followed by hair, 12.8%; skincare, 11.7%; health and diet, 11.3%; the rest, 10.6%; cosmetic products, 10.1%; cosmetic events and industrial trends, 9.4%. Third, to classify the types of make-up showed up in cosmetic articles, photo pictures were also examined. Pictures which were smaller than 15cm. in width and 20cm. in length were not included in this study because of various difficulties and technical imitation. The types of make-up were categorically classified into 'natural make-up', 'classical make-up', 'Koreanized make-up', 'colored cubic make-up' and 'colored plane make-up'. The typological specimens were visually presented by adopting computer composited Korean typical beauties using Macintosh photo-shop program.
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