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金 竹坡 伽倻 琴 散調의 리듬에 대한 考察
- 金 竹坡 伽倻 琴 散調의 리듬에 대한 考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study of the Rhythms in Kim, Chuk-Pa's Kayageum Sanjo
- Issue Date
- 대학원 음악학과
- 김; 죽파; 가야금; 산조; 리듬
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- Though the Kayageum Sanjo of Kim, chuk-pa is composed of seven sections entitled tasurum (prelude), chinyang-jo (lento), chungmori (moderato), chungjung mori (andante), chajin mori(allegro), hwimori (presto), and sesanjo shi (allegro), only the structure and usage of the metrical rhythms employed are examined in this study.
The method of research was carried out as follows: (1) division of the pulse (2) fusion of the pulse (3) the rhythmic form found at the start and at the finish (4) study of the distinguishing characteristics of the rhythmic structure.
As the result of an analysis made of the rhythms in Kim, Chuk-pa's kayageum sanjo, the following similar distinguishing characteristics were found:
Here, no more than 265% of the tones are equivalent in duration to that of a dotted quarter note(♩.), the remainder consisting of a wide variety of forms, the most representative of which occur in the following order: a quarter and eighth note(♩♪), an eighth and quarter note(♪♩), a dotted quarter note(♩.), and three eighth notes(□).
Looking at the rhythmic forms employed at the start and finish, at the start of each movement, a dotted quarter note(♩.) appears only once, which is then subdivided into an eighth and a quarter note(♪♩), a quarter and an eighth note(♩♪), a quarter and and two sixteenth notes(♩♬), three eighth notes (□), etc. At the end, particularly at the very end of the 12th movement, though the basic form consists of an eighth and a quarter note followed by a quarter and an eighth note, we find that this basic form changes to three eighth notes(□), followed by an eighth, two sixteenths, and an eighth note(□), followed by two sixteenth and two eighth notes(□), followed by four sixteenth and an eighth note(□).
In analyzing the changes that occur in the essential parts of the rhythmic structure, it was manly found that two dotted quarter notes joined by a tie(□□) preceded a dotted quarter note(♩.), the dotted quarter note(♩.) preceded an eighth and a quarter note(♪♩), the eighth and quarter note(♪♩) preceded a quarter and an eighth note(♩♪), the quarter and eighth note (♩♪) preceded an eighth and quarter note(♪♩), and a quarter and eighth note(♩♪) preceded three eighth notes(□).
In other words, we may say that the tone of the very longest duration precedes that of the next longest duration, and the tone of a short duration precedes that of the very shortest duration.
In an analysis of the amount of repetitions accurring in similar patterns of the essential rhythmic elements, it was found that a change to another rhythmic pattern occurring only once after the tone was played happened 7% of the time after the dotted quarter note(♩.), 56% of the time after the quarter and eighth note(♩♪), 71% of the time after the eighth and quarter note(♪♩), and 84% of the time after the three eighth notes(□), revealing that' though a large amount of repetition does often occur, its frequency tends to diminish.
In other words, a change to different and various other kinds of rhythmic patterns is employed more frequently than repetitions of similar forms of the basic or essential rhythmic elements.
2. Chung-mori, Chungi'ung-mori, Chalin-mori, Hwi-mori In studying the divisions of the pulse in the movements starting from chung-mori, it was found that short instances of syncopation, hemiola, and other irregular rhythmic forms appear frequently, making the rhythmic composition quite complex. Syncopation, hemiola, and other irregular rhythmic forms occurred 31% of the time in 64 rhythmic patterns of chung-mori, 30% of the time in 43 rhythmic patterns of chung"jung-mori, 79% of the time in 90 rhythmic patterns of chajinmori, and 71% of the time in 145 rhythmic patterns of hwimori, not being restricted to one rhythmic pattern alone, but ranging over several of them.;金 竹坡 伽倻琴 散調는 다스름, 진양조, 중모리, 중중모리, 자진모리, 휘모리, 세산조시의 全七樂章으로 構成되어 있는데, 그 中 拍節的리듬(metrical rhythm)만을 考察하여 金 竹坡 伽倻琴 散調의 리듬構造와 語法을 밝히려고 한다.
硏究方法에 있어서 (1) 鼓動拍의 分割, (2) 鼓動拍의 結合, (3) 始作과 終止의 리듬型, (4) 리듬構造上의 特徵을 考察하였다.
金 竹坡 伽倻琴 散調의 리듬을 分析하여 본 結果 다음과 같은 特徵을 발견할 수 있었다.
1 진 양 조
1音이 ♩.로 나타나는 경우는 26%에 불과하고 나머지 多樣한 형태로 分割되는데 가장 대표적인 분할의 순서는 ♩ ♪, ♪ ♩, ♩., □이다.
始作과 終止의 리듬型에 있어서 各 樂章이 ♩.로 始作하는 경우는 한번뿐이고 ♪♩, ♩♪, ♩♬, □ 등으로 分割되며 , 終止도 가장 마지막 章인 12章 終止만이 ♪♩♩♪로서 終止原形으로 나타날뿐 그 외는 ♪♩가 ♩♪, □, □, □, □ 로 변화한다.
리듬要素의 變化를 分析하여 본 結果 □ 앞에는 ♩., ♩. 앞에는 ♪♩, ♪♩ 앞에는 ♩♪, ♩♪앞에는 ♪♩, □앞에는 ♩♪가 주로 出現한다.
즉 극히 긴 時價의 音이 나올때는 앞에 미리 긴 時價의 音이 나오고, 극히 짧은 時價의 音이 나올때는 앞에 미리 짧은 時價의 音이 나온다.
同型리듬要素의 反復을 分析하여 본 結果 1回만 出現한 후 다른 리듬要素로 변화하는 경우가 ♩.는 78%, ♩♪는 56%, ♪♩는 71% □는 84%로서 가장 많고 反復回數가 많을수록 그 出現頻度는 줄어든다. 즉 同型리듬要素의 反復보다는 여러 가지 리듬要素를 다채롭게 변화시키고 있다.
2. 중모리, 중중모리, 자진모리, 휘모리
중모리 이후의 樂章에서는, 鼓動拍의 分割은 간단하나 신코페이션(Syncopation), 헤미올라(Hemiola), 불규칙 분할이 많이 나타나서 리듬 構造가 복잡해진다. 이와같은 신코페이션, 헤미올라, 불규칙 분할은 중모리 64長短 中 31%, 중중모리 43長短 中 30%, 자진모리 90長短 中 79%, 휘모리 145長短 中 71%에서 나타나는데 한長短에서뿐만 아니라 몇 長短에 걸쳐 나타나기도 한다.
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