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고기능자폐아동의 전제능력

Title
고기능자폐아동의 전제능력
Other Titles
Presuppositional Skills in Children with High Functioning Autism: Given-New Information Processing andNegative Sentence Comprehension
Authors
이희란
Issue Date
2007
Department/Major
대학원 언어병리학협동과정
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
Presuppositional skills have been defined as knowing what it is reasonable to suppose the listener knows and needs to know. It is one of the difficulties in language comprehension of children with the high functioning autism(HFA). The purposes of this study were to identify the characteristics of presuppositional skills in children with the HFA and to investigate the given-new information processing and negative sentence comprehension abilities. Forty children participated in this study: 20 children with HFA aged 6;0-8;11 and 20 normal children matched on the language age with the HFA group(LA control group). In study 1, the children were shown 2 pairs of pictures that were identical except for one obvious detail. Seeing them in the barrier game, the children heard the facts that the communication partner wants to know about the second picture in the context of the first picture in which he knows only. Then, the children were shown 3 word cards and asked to choice one in which the communication partner wants to know. The 3 word cards consisted of given information(action), given information(actor), and new information (action). The principal findings of study 1 were as follows: (1) The HFA group chose significantly more word cards of given information than LA controls. There were significant differences compared with LA controls. (2) As for the kinds of given information, the HFA group were not significantly different between the actor and the action. There were no significant differences compared with LA controls. Study 2 looked at how children represented negative sentences when the sentences were presented with presuppositional context using a forced choice task. Study 2 consisted of two conditions: (1)the articles condition is subjective particle ‘i/ka’ marking, topic-contrastive particle ‘(n)un’ marking and empty marking, (2) word order condition is normal word order and reverse word order. Study 2 measured the latency in the representation of negation and the frequency in the representation of negation(agent negation, object negation, and action negation). The principal findings of study 2 were as follows: (1) The HFA group demonstrated significantly more latency in the representation of negation than the LA controls. As for the topic-contrastive particle ‘(n)un’ marking condition, the HFA group lower latency compared with the subjective particle ‘i/ka’ marking condition and empty marking condition. As for the word order condition, there were no significant differences compared with LA controls. (2) The HFA group chose more the pictures in which the action was changed in negative sentences. However LA control group chose more the picture in which the object was changed in negative sentences. As for the topic-contrastive particle ‘(n)un’ marking condition, the HFA group chose more the pictures in which the object was changed in negative sentences compared with the subjective particle ‘i/ka’ marking condition and empty marking condition. The result of the two studies shows that children with the HFA have difficulty in presuppositional skills in relation to given-new information processing. This problem involves the negative sentence comprehension difficulty also. Therefore the sentence comprehension and expression intervention with HFA needs to consider the particle ‘(n)un’ marking than empty marking or subjective particles marking.;본 연구에서는 우선 고기능 자폐아동들의 전제능력 가운데 가장 기본적인 새로운 정보와 주어진 정보 처리 능력을 살펴보았다. 자폐아동과 정상 아동의 전제 방식의 차이를 좀더 구체적으로 검토하고자, 부정문의 이해 과정에서 이들의 부정표상 전략을 살펴보고, 이러한 특성에 영향을 주는 요인이 무엇인지에 대해 논의함으로써 고기능 자폐아동을 위한 화용적 언어중재의 효율적인 방안을 모색하고자 하였다. 고기능 자폐아동 집단은 언어능력일치 집단과 비교하였을 때, 대화상대방이 알고 있는 것에 대한 구분 또는 전제하기를 기초로 하는 ‘새로운 정보’ 낱말 처리에서 특히 어려움을 보였다. 그러나 전제 맥락이 있는 부정문의 이해과정에서 주제보조사가 표지된 부정문의 이해에서는 주어진 정보와 새로운 정보의 처리과정에서는 고기능 자폐아동 집단이 주제보조사표지 조건에서 ‘은/는’의 단서효과에 따라 주어진 정보인 행위보다는 새로운 정보인 대상에 부정을 표지하는 경향성을 발견할 수 있었다. 결과적으로 고기능 자폐아동집단도 주격이나 주제보조사가 표지된 문장 조건에서는 주어진 정보와 새로운 정보에 대한 부정표지에 어려움이 없었다. 따라서 고기능자폐 아동을 위한 부정문 중재에서, 주제보조사 ‘은/는’을 사용하여 부정 표지에 대한 표상에 도움을 주는 형태의 중재방법이 효율적임을 본 연구를 통하여 시사받을 수 있었다.전제능력은 소통의 여러 양상과도 밀접하게 관련되어 있으며, 자폐 장애 아동들에게 특징적인 결함으로 최근 강조되는 마음이론(ToM)과도 연결된다. 화용적인 결함이 두드러지는 자폐 아동의 경우, 전제능력의 수준 및 발달 정보와 함께 이를 기초로 한 부정문 이해 능력을 밝히는 것은 변별진단을 위한 중요한 단서가 될 수 있을 것이다.
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